Table 2

Risk of cardiovascular mortality by depression score and physical activity

GroupNo of deathsPerson- yearsIncidence per 1000 person-yearsUnadjusted/univariate HR (95% CI)Demographic adjusted HR (95% CI)*Multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI)
Depressive symptoms§
 Low (n=4600)70944 047161.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
 High (n=1252)46716 605281.67 (1.49 to 1.88)1.63 (1.45 to 1.84)1.27 (1.12 to 1.44)
Physical activity score (PAS)
 Group IV: 12–15 (n=739)59669591.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
 Group III: 8–11 (n=2546)31324 048131.45 (1.10 to 1.92)1.36 (1.03 to 1.80)1.23 (0.93 to 1.63)
 Group II: 4–7 (n=1914)44921 336212.24 (1.71 to 2.94)2.16 (1.64 to 2.84)1.71 (1.30 to 2.26)
 Group I: 0–3 (n=653)3558574414.25 (3.22 to 5.61)3.59 (2.70 to 4.77)2.17 (1.62 to 2.91)
  • All p values<0.001 except PAS group III: p=0.008 (unadjusted), p=0.031 (demographic) and p=0.143 (multivariable).

  • * Adjusted for age, race and gender.

  • The number of participants in each group is taken from baseline.

  • Adjusted for age, race, gender, clinic location (four sites), education (less than high school, high school, beyond high school), body mass index (underweight, normal, overweight, obese), smoking (never, former, current), alcohol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and antidepressant medication use.

  • § Depressive symptoms based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (10-item version): low (score 0–7) and high (score ≥8).