Table 1

Baseline participant characteristics

CharacteristicsOptimal (n=1165)Pre-HTN (n=1765)Stage 1 (n=1049)Stage 2 (n=429)p Value*
Age, years71.9 (4.5)72.6 (4.7)73.4 (5.2)74.4 (5.4)<0.001
Male, %44.547.648.047.10.18
Black, %13.719.420.221.7<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m225.3 (4.1)26.2 (4.2)26.6 (4.3)26.2 (4.7)<0.001
Heart rate, beats/min64 (10)65 (11)66 (10)65 (12)0.004
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg110 (8)129 (6)148 (6)172 (12)
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg63 (8)70 (9)75 (10)80 (12)
Smoking status
 Current, %14.813.010.812.60.002
 Former, %43.242.541.539.9
Diabetes, %4.97.08.16.50.028
Left ventricular hypertrophy, %2.23.67.98.9<0.001
Coronary heart disease, %6.58.39.111.20.002
Fasting glucose, mg/dl100 (22)104 (31)106 (30)108 (35)<0.001
Creatinine, mg/dl1.00 (0.36)1.01 (0.31)1.02 (0.24)1.07 (0.55)0.009
Albumin, mg/dl3.96 (0.29)3.99 (0.30)4.01 (0.29)4.03 (0.30)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dl208 (40)208 (36)212 (39)216 (40)<0.001
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl127 (37)127 (33)130 (35)134 (36)<0.001
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl56 (17)55 (16)56 (17)56 (16)0.53
Triglycerides, mg/dl107 (86, 146)115 (88, 154)118 (90, 155)113 (89, 152)0.001
  • Values represent mean (SD) unless otherwise stated.

  • * Non-parametric test for trend across categories.

  • For trend calculation, we assigned the following values: never=0; former=1; current=2.

  • Values represent median (25th centile, 75th centile).

  • HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HTN=hypertension; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.