Table 3

Multivariable competing risk analysis for the risk of SCD and incident CHD associated with different ECG variables

ECG variable*Definite SCDIncident CHDp Value
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
ECG-LVH1.74 (1.03 to 2.93)1.59 (1.30 to 1.94)0.7522
ECG-LV mass1.31 (1.06 to 1.61)1.14 (1.06 to 1.23)0.2116
Spatial QRST angle1.30 (1.15 to 1.47)1.19 (1.14 to 1.24)0.1835
Spatial T axis1.14 (1.03 to 1.27)1.10 (1.06 to 1.15)0.5540
Frontal QRST angle1.17 (1.06 to 1.28)1.13 (1.09 to 1.17)0.4737
Heart rate1.21 (1.07 to 1.37)1.05 (1.01 to 1.10)0.0398
QTc duration (ms)1.19 (1.08 to 1.31)1.05 (1.01 to 1.09)0.0158
T wave inversion§2.03 (1.49 to 2.75)1.41 (1.27 to 1.56)0.0265
ST depression§2.44 (1.69 to 3.51)1.66 (1.45 to 1.91)0.0532
STJ in I (μv)0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)0.91 (0.87 to 0.95)0.2310
STJ in II (μv)0.78 (0.69 to 0.89)0.96 (0.92 to 1.00)0.0029
STJ in aVF (μv)0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)0.0068
STJ in aVL (μv)0.98 (0.86 to 1.12)0.93 (0.89 to 0.97)0.4318
ST60 in I (μv)0.77 (0.68 to 0.87)0.86 (0.82 to 0.90)0.0971
ST60 in II (μv)0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)0.92 (0.88 to 0.96)0.1334
ST60 in III (μv)1.05 (0.92 to 1.19)1.05 (1.01 to 1.10)0.9766
ST60 in aVL (μv)0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)0.88 (0.85 to 0.92)0.3241
STJ in V1 (μv)1.07 (0.95 to 1.21)1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)0.6951
STJ in V2 (μv)0.93 (0.81 to 1.07)1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)0.0251
STJ in V3 (μv)0.86 (0.75 to 0.99)1.04 (1.00 to 1.09)0.0105
STJ in V4 (μv)0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)0.96 (0.92 to 1.00)0.0774
STJ in V5 (μv)0.83 (0.74 to 0.93)0.93 (0.89 to 0.97)0.0841
STJ in V6 (μv)0.82 (0.73 to 0.92)0.91 (0.87 to 0.95)0.1542
ST60 in V1 (μv)1.10 (0.98 to 1.25)1.14 (1.09 to 1.18)0.6588
ST60 in V2 (μv)0.91 (0.78 to 1.05)1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)0.0155
ST60 in V4 (μv)0.84 (0.73 to 0.97)0.93 (0.89 to 0.98)0.1722
ST60 in V5 (μv)0.81 (0.72 to 0.92)0.88 (0.84 to 0.92)0.2114
ST60 in V6 (μv)0.82 (0.72 to 0.92)0.87 (0.84 to 0.91)0.2668
  • * Other ECG variables tested for predictive value but not found significant for either outcomes in the preliminary analysis or the competing analysis were excluded from the table. This included QRS duration, spatial QRS axis, ST60 in V3, STJ in III, ST60 in aVF, the amplitude and duration of P, P′, R, R′, Q, S and S′ waves, the R intrinsicoid deflection, T and T′ amplitude, duration and area in each of the 12 ECG leads as well as total QRS duration, axis and area, QT (and QTc by Bazett) duration, PR duration, P wave axis, T wave axis, and time domain heart rate variability indices of SDNN and RMSSD and ST elevation by Minnesota Code.

  • Unless described otherwise, HRs for continuous variables are per 1 SD increase and for the abnormal value for categorical variables adjusted for the variables in table 2.

  • Assessing equivalence of HRs for the two end points.

  • § Abnormally inverted T wave and significant ST depression were defined by Minnesota Code as abnormality in any of the ECG lead groups: anterior, lateral or inferior.

  • SCD, sudden cardiac death; CHD, coronary heart disease; STJ, ST height as measured at the J point; ST60, ST height as measured at 60 ms after the J point.