Table 3

Clinical characteristics, preprocedural ECG findings, procedural variables and inhospital outcomes according to the need for PPI following standard AVR

VariablesPPIp Value
Yes n=25No n=755
Clinical characteristics
 Age (years)78±577±40.42
 Male sex16 (64)334 (44)0.06
 Body mass index (kg/m2)28±528±50.89
 Diabetes4 (16)167 (22)0.62
 Hypertension19 (76)522 (69)0.52
 Chronic atrial fibrillation/flutter7 (28)119 (16)0.16
 Previous myocardial infarction5 (20)94 (12)0.23
 Cerebrovascular disease2 (8.0)86 (11)1.00
 Peripheral vascular disease083 (11)0.10
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease6 (24)134 (18)0.43
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2)80±1877±250.54
 Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (%)3.5±1.63.5±1.50.94
 Logistic EuroSCORE (%)13.4±11.710.3±8.40.20
Echocardiographic data
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)56±1660±130.11
 Mean gradient (mm Hg)44±1947±150.38
 Aortic valve area (cm2)0.7±0.20.7±0.20.23
 Indexed aortic valve area (cm2/m2)0.4±0.10.4±0.10.82
 Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (mm Hg)39±1737±120.74
 Moderate mitral regurgitation1 (4.0)30 (4.0)1.00
Preprocedural ECG findings
 LBBB5 (20)47 (6.2)0.02
 RBBB5 (20)52 (6.9)0.03
 LAH1 (4.0)49 (6.5)1.00
 IVCD3 (12)57 (7.6)0.43
 1-AVB2 (8.0)68 (9.0)1.00
Prosthesis type
 Mechanical024 (3.2)1.00
 Bioprosthetic25 (100)731 (97)
  Stented24 (96)666 (88)0.72
  Stentless1 (4.0)65 (8.6)
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min)93±2987±260.29
 Aortic cross-clamp time (min)68±1965±200.57
 Prosthesis size (mm)
  1701 (0.1)0.16
  192 (8.0)72 (10)
  216 (24)222 (29)
  237 (28)227 (30)
  254 (16)172 (23)
  275 (20)55 (7)
  291 (4.0)6 (0.8)
Inhospital outcomes
 Stroke3 (12)35 (4.6)0.12
 CK-MB increase >5 times5 (20)107 (14)0.39
 Need for haemodialysis1 (4.0)18 (2.4)0.47
 Sepsis1 (4.0)8 (1.1)0.26
 Need for re-operation for bleeding2 (8.0)39 (5.8)0.38
 Intubation >48 h2 (8.0)44 (5.2)0.65
 Hospitalisation length, days (25–75th IQR)10 (9–15)7 (6–10)0.0001
 30-Day mortality1 (4.0)24 (3.2)0.56
  • Values are expressed as n (%), mean±(SD) or median (25–75th IQR) unless otherwise noted.

  • AVR, aortic valve replacement; CK-MB, creatine kinase, myocardial type; EuroSCORE: European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation; IVCD, intraventricular conduction delay; LAH, left anterior hemiblock; LBBB, left bundle branch block; 1-AVB, first-degree atrioventricular block; PPI, permanent pacemaker implantation; RBBB, right bundle branch block.