Table 4

Baseline, procedural and postprocedural variables, according to the hospitalisation length following standard AVR

VariablesHospitalisation lengthp Value
≤8 Days n=485>8 Days n=295
Clinical characteristics
 Age (years)76±478±5<0.0001
 Male sex223 (46)127 (43)0.46
 Body mass index (kg/m2)28±528±50.39
 Diabetes110 (23)61 (21)0.53
 Hypertension335 (69)206 (70)0.87
 Chronic atrial fibrillation/flutter60 (12)66 (22)<0.0001
 Previous myocardial infarction56 (12)43 (15)0.22
 Cerebrovascular disease47 (10)41 (14)0.08
 Peripheral vascular disease51 (11)32 (11)0.91
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease71 (15)69 (23)0.003
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2)79±2375±270.12
 Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (%)3.4±1.43.7±1.70.06
 Logistic EuroSCORE (%)9.5±8.311.8±8.80.0002
Echocardiographic data
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)61±1359±140.01
 Mean gradient (mm Hg)47±1547±160.56
 Aortic valve area (cm2)0.66±0.170.63±0.170.03
 Indexed aortic valve area (cm2/m2)0.38±0.090.36±0.090.005
 Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (mm Hg)37±1138±140.53
 Moderate mitral regurgitation15 (3.1)16 (5.4)0.13
Preprocedural ECG findings
 No conduction disturbances322 (66)169 (57)0.01
 LBBB28 (5.8)24 (8.1)0.24
 RBBB29 (5.9)28 (9.5)0.09
 LAH30 (6.2)20 (6.8)0.76
 IVCD31 (6.4)29 (9.8)0.09
 1-AVB45 (9.3)25 (8.5)0.80
Procedural variables
 Prosthesis type
  Mechanical15 (3.1)9 (3.1)1.00
  Bioprosthetic470 (97)286 (97)
   Stented433 (89)257 (87)0.29
   Stentless37 (7.6)29 (10)
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min)85±2392±290.0001
 Aortic cross-clamp time (min)63±1869±220.0003
 Prosthesis size (mm)
  171 (0.2)00.51
  1948 (9.9)26 (8.8)
  21146 (30.1)82 (27.8)
  23138 (28.5)96 (32.5)
  25116 (23.9)60 (20.3)
  2732 (6.6)28 (9.5)
  294 (0.8)3 (1.0)
Inhospital outcomes
 Pacemaker implantation6 (1.2)19 (6.4)<0.0001
 Stroke10 (2.1)28 (9.5)<0.0001
 CK-MB increase >5 times67 (14)45 (15)0.60
 Need for haemodialysis2 (0.4)17 (5.8)<0.0001
 Sepsis1 (0.2)11 (3.7)<0.0001
 Need for re-operation for bleeding17 (3.5)29 (9.8)<0.0001
 Intubation >48 h6 (1.2)35 (12)<0.0001
  • Values are expressed as n (%), mean±(SD) or median (25–75th IQR) unless otherwise noted.

  • AVR, aortic valve replacement; CK-MB, creatine kinase, myocardial type; EuroSCORE: European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation; IVCD, intraventricular conduction delay; LAH, left anterior hemiblock; LBBB, left bundle branch block; 1-AVB, first-degree atrioventricular block; RBBB, right bundle branch block.