Table 1

Baseline patient characteristics

Patients (n)170
Age (years)55.9±9.0
Male gender, n (%)131 (77)
Body surface area (m2)2.11±0.20
Type of AF
 Paroxysmal, n (%)121 (71)
 Persistent, n (%)49 (29)
Duration of AF (months)48 (24–96)
Number of failed antiarrhythmic drugs (n)3.3±1.3
Hypertension, n (%)76 (45)
Hypercholesterolaemia, n (%)51 (30)
Coronary artery disease, n (%)9 (5)
β Blocker, n (%)54 (32)
Class 1 or 3 antiarrhythmic drug, n (%)132 (78)
ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, n (%)86 (51)
Diuretic, n (%)27 (16)
LA volume index (ml/m2)42.5±15.4
LV ejection fraction (%)58±5
Calibrated IBS LA (dB)−18.0±5.1
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; IBS, integrated backscatter; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricular.