Table 1

Summary of existing studies which have used patient-specific iPSC-CMs in cardiac disease modelling

Disease modelledReprogramming methodGene mutationMethods used to evaluate cellular phenotypeIn vitro abnormality of patient-derived iPSC-CMsNumber of patients in studyControls usedReference
LQTS type 1Retroviral integrationR190Q mutation in KCNQ1 geneWhole cell patch clamp; immunohistochemistryIKs2 (father and son from affected family)2 healthy individuals9
LQTS type 2Retroviral integrationA614V mutation in the KCNH2 geneWhole cell patch clamp; multielectrode recordingsAPD prolongation; decrease in IKr11 healthy individual10
LQTS type 2Lentiviral integrationG1681A mutation in the KCNH2 geneWhole cell patch clamp; multielectrode recordings; response to drugs, including K+ channel blockers and openers and B-blockersAPD prolongation; increased sensitivity of cells to drugs and increased after depolarisations2 (mother and daughter)Cardiomyocytes from HUES7 cell line and genetically unrelated hESC-derived fibroblasts11
LQTS type 8 (Timothy syndrome)Retroviral integrationG406R mutation in the CACNA1C geneWhole cell patch clamp; confocal microscopyICa2 (unrelated)2 healthy individuals12
LEOPARD syndromeRetroviral integrationT468M mutation in PTPN11 geneMicroscopic morphometry; immunocytochemistry; antibody array and western blot analysesiPSC-CMs from patients were larger, showed higher degree of sarcomeric organisation and preferential nuclear localisation of NFATC42 (unrelated)2 hESC and unaffected brother of one of the patients13
  • APD, action potential duration; hESC, human embryonic stem cell; iPSC-CM, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes; LQTS, long QT syndrome.