Table 2

Summary of current and future applications of iPSC technology in relation to cardiovascular medicine and ongoing challenges ahead

Cardiovascular applicationAdvantage of using iPSC-technologyOngoing challenges
Disease modelling
  • Inherited arrhythmogenic diseases

  • Inherited cardiomyopathies

  • iPSC-CMs carry same genetic mutation allowing rarer genetic diseases to be modelled

  • Relatively immature phenotype

  • Difficulties in modelling more complex multifactorial diseases

Drug testing and discovery
  • Testing of existing drugs on human cardiomyocytes

  • Testing of new drugs

  • Unlimited source of human cardiomyocytes

  • Relatively immature phenotype

  • Need to improve efficiency of iPSC-CM production and upscaling of cells

Personalised medicine
  • In vitro drug testing

  • Correction of genetic mutation

  • Patient-specific iPSC-CMs: in vitro data may be directly relevant to individual

  • Possibility of correcting genetic mutation specific to that individual

  • Need to demonstrate good correlation between in vitro data and significance to individual

  • Current methods of reprogramming too slow and inefficient

Regenerative medicine
  • Cell transplantation in heart failure/post myocardial infarction

  • Biological pacemakers

  • Artificial heart valves

  • Vascular endothelial cells for peripheral vascular disease

  • No need for immunosuppression

  • iPSC-CMs can be produced from patients' own somatic cells

  • Potential teratoma formation of undifferentiated iPSCs

  • Potential proarrhythmias

  • Functional and electrical integration of cells

  • Need for purification and upscaling of iPSC-CMs

  • Optimal delivery methods

  • iPSC-CM, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.