Table 1

Age- and sex-adjusted baseline characteristics of participants by sex-specific quartile of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation status, the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, 1994–1998

CharacteristicsTotal dietary calcium intake in quartiles*Calcium supplementation
1 (low)234 (high)Calcium supplementsOther supplementsNo supplements used
No of participants5986599359986003851717015 959
Total dietary calcium intake* (mg/day)5136758201130828820766
Dairy calcium intake* (mg/day)188330466780477470426
Non-dairy calcium intake* (mg/day)324345353351352349340
Dietary vitamin D intake* (μg/day)
Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids* (g/day)30.030.831.332.330.630.731.3
Dietary intake of total protein* (g/day)65.267.369.574.570.369.269.0
Smoking duration (years)13.511.811.511.713.012.312.0
Lifetime alcohol intake (g/day)21.317.715.213.817.317.117.0
Age at recruitment (years)51.250.650.350.553.651.850.0
Women (%)
University degree (%)21.528.633.
Physically active (%)
BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (%)57.856.954.953.150.951.857.6
Current smokers (%)28.822.120.921.523.922.123.9
Hypertension at recruitment§ (%)
Hyperlipidaemia at recruitment§ (%)35.636.734.535.038.837.034.6
Diabetes mellitus at recruitment§ (%)
Use of anti-hypertensive drugs (%)13.614.713.514.313.816.313.0
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (%)
Use of NSAIDs (%)
Use of calcium supplements (%)
  • * Adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method. The cut-off points were 603, 748 and 924 mg/day for men and 610, 738 and 898 mg/day for women.

  • Participants with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, stroke, or transient ischaemic attack at recruitment and participants whose total energy intake fell into the top or bottom 0.5 sex-specific centile (men: <887/>5582 kcal/day; women: <703/>4381 kcal/day) were excluded.

  • p<0.05. Values are either percentages or means.

  • § Self-reported.

  • BMI, body mass index; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; NSAIDS, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.