Table 2

ECG findings considered normal and abnormal for the athlete's heart (adapted from Corrado et al13)

Normal athlete's heartAbnormal finding
Sinus bradycardiaT wave inversion
First degree AV blockST segment depression
Incomplete RBBBPathological Q waves
Early repolarisationLeft atrial enlargement
Isolated QRS voltage criteria for LVHLeft axis deviation/left anterior fascicular block
Right axis deviation/left posterior fascicular block
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Ventricular pre-excitation
Complete LBBB or RBBB
Long or short QT interval
Brugada-like early repolarisation
  • AV, atrioventricular; LBBB, left bundle branch block; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; RBBB, right bundle branch block.