Table 2

Acute and late outcomes, according to the use of thoracic epidural analgesia

VariablesStudy populationThoracic epidural analgesiap Value
NoYes
n=135n=61n=74
30-day/in-hospital outcomes
 Orotracheal reintubation16 (11.9)14 (22.9)2 (2.7)<0.001
 Tracheostomy6 (4.4)6 (9.8)00.007
 Pneumonia11 (8.1)9 (14.8)2 (2.7)0.022
 Respiratory complications* 22 (16.3)20 (32.8)2 (2.7)<0.001
 Sepsis12 (8.9)10 (16.4)2 (2.7)0.006
 Haemodialysis3 (2.2)1 (1.6)2 (2.7)0.677
 Stroke7 (5.2)3 (4.9)4 (5.4)1.00
 Myocardial infarction2 (1.5)2 (3.3)00.202
  Peak CK-MB (ug/l)22.0 (16.1–32.0)26.5 (19.1–37.6)19.8 (15.0–30.0)0.002
  Peak cardiac troponin T (ug/l)0.74 (0.51–1.04)0.80 (0.52–1.34)0.73 (0.47–0.93)0.013
 New-onset atrial fibrillation38 (28.1)28 (45.9)10 (13.5)<0.001
 Major bleeding23 (17.0)13 (21.3)10 (13.5)0.253
 Hospital length (days, IQR)8 (7–13)10 (7–16)8 (6–10)0.015
 30-day death14 (10.3)12 (19.7)2 (2.7)0.002
 In-hospital death16 (11.9)14 (22.9)2 (2.7)<0.001
 30 day/in-hospital death16 (11.9)14 (22.9)2 (2.7)<0.001
Late (>30-day/in-hospital to 1-year) outcomes
 Stroke1 (0.7)01 (1.4)1.00
 Myocardial infarction1 (0.7)1 (1.6)00.444
 Death11 (8.1)5 (8.2)6 (8.1)0.750
Late (1-year) cumulative outcomes
 Stroke8 (5.9)3 (4.9)5 (6.8)0.729
 Myocardial infarction3 (2.2)3 (4.9)00.089
 Death27 (20.0)19 (31.1)8 (10.8)0.005
  • Values are mean±SD, n (%) or median (IQR).

  • * Pneumonia or respiratory failure leading to reintubation and/or tracheostomy.

  • CK-MB: Creatine kinase-MB.