Table 2

Association between tobacco use and self-reported HD in the Golestan Cohort Study

Tobacco use*All participants (%)HD cases (%)Participants without HD (%)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)†
Water-pipe smoking
 Ever versus never use
  Never49489 (98.9)2990 (98.1)46499 (99.0)ReferenceReference
  Ever525 (1.1)51 (1.9)474 (1.0)1.67 (1.25 to 2.24)1.09 (0.80 to 1.48)
 Moderate-high versus never-low use
  ≤50 water-pipe-years49894 (99.8)3022 (99.4)46872 (99.8)ReferenceReference
  >50 water-pipe-years120 (0.2)19 (0.6)101 (0.2)2.92 (1.78 to 4.77)1.83 (1.10 to 3.07)
 Cumulative use
  Never49489 (98.9)2990 (98.3)46499 (99.0)ReferenceReference
  ≤50 water-pipe-years405 (0.8)32 (1.0)373 (0.8)1.33 (0.93 to 1.91)0.87 (0.60 to 1.28)
  50.1–10052 (0.1)6 (0.2)46 (0.1)2.03 (0.86 to 4.74)1.25 (0.52 to 3.03)
  100.1–18043 (0.1)5 (0.2)38 (0.1)2.05 (1.03 to 2.80)1.49 (0.57 to 3.87)
  >18025 (0.1)8 (0.3)17 (0.04)6.39 (2.65 to 15.41)3.75 (1.52 to 9.22)
p trend: <0.001p trend: 0.04
Cigarette smoking
 Ever versus never use
  Never41445 (82.9)2405 (79.7)39040 (83.1)ReferenceReference
  Ever8555 (17.1)614 (20.3)7941 (16.9)1.26 (1.14 to 1.38)1.63 (1.45 to 1.83)
 Moderate-high versus never-low use
  ≤5 pack-years44187 (88.4)2559 (85.3)41628 (88.6)ReferenceReference
  >5 pack-years5813 (11.6)460 (14.7)5353 (11.4)1.40 (1.26 to 1.55)1.76 (1.55 to 1.99)
 Cumulative use
  Never41445 (82.9)2405 (79.7)39040 (83.1)ReferenceReference
  ≤5 pack-years2742 (5.5)154 (5.1)2588 (5.5)0.97 (0.82 to 1.14)1.26 (1.05 to 1.52)
  5.1–101260 (2.5)73 (2.4)1187 (2.5)1.00 (0.79 to 1.27)1.43 (1.11 to 1.84)
  10.1–20.01798 (3.6)121 (4.0)1677 (3.6)1.17 (0.97 to 1.41)1.73 (1.41 to 2.13)
  >202755 (5.5)266 (8.8)2489 (5.3)1.73 (1.52 to 1.98)2.04 (1.74 to 2.38)
p trend: <0.001p trend: <0.001
Nass chewing
 Ever versus never use
  Never46264 (92.5)2775 (92.5)43489 (92.5)ReferenceReference
  Ever3726 (7.5)225 (7.5)3501 (7.5)1.01 (0.88 to 1.16)0.85 (0.73 to 1.00)
 Moderate-high versus never-low use
  ≤50 nass-years48026 (96.1)2859 (95.3)45167 (96.1)ReferenceReference
  >50 nass-years1964 (3.9)141 (4.7)1823 (3.9)1.22 (1.03 to 1.46)0.95 (0.79 to 1.15)
 Cumulative use
  Never46264 (92.5)2775 (92.5)43489 (92.5)ReferenceReference
  ≤50 nass-years1762 (3.5)84 (2.8)1678 (3.6)0.78 (0.63 to 0.98)0.75 (0.60 to 0.95)
  50.1–100635 (1.3)43 (1.4)592 (1.3)1.14 (0.83 to 1.56)0.98 (0.71 to 1.36)
  100.1–180532 (1.1)35 (1.2)497 (1.0)1.10 (0.78 to 1.56)0.90 (0.62 to 1.28)
  >180797 (1.6)63 (2.1)734 (1.6)1.35 (1.04 to 1.74)0.91 (0.69 to 1.20)
p trend: 0.09p trend: 0.24
  • Numbers may not add up to the total numbers due to missing data in some variables.

  • *Among HD cases, those who started the use of the tobacco product after receiving a diagnosis of HD were excluded from the analyses related to the respective product; 100 water-pipe-years, for example, indicates water-pipe use equivalent to use 10 times per day for 10 years (or use 5 times per day for 20 years).

  • †All results for each tobacco product were adjusted for cumulative use of the other products listed in this table, as well as for age, sex, ethnicity, place of residence, education level, wealth, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, and self-reported diabetes (these variables were as shown in Table 1).

  • HD, heart disease.