Table 1

Distribution of some sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of IHD in the Golestan Cohort Study, at the baseline by self-reported HD status*

CharacteristicsAll participantsHD casesParticipants without HDp Value
Total50045 (100)3051 (100)46993 (100)
Age (years)52.1 (9.0)56.9 (9.1)51.8 (8.9)<0.001
Sex0.03
 Women28811 (57.6)1787 (58.6)27024 (57.5)
 Men21234 (42.4)1264 (41.4)19970 (42.5)
Ethnicity<0.001
 Non-Turkmen12792 (25.6)1022 (33.5)11770 (25.0)
 Turkmen37253 (74.4)2029 (66.5)35224 (75.0)
Place of residence<0.001
 Rural40013 (80.0)2272 (74.5)37741 (80.3)
 Urban10032 (20.0)779 (25.5)9253 (19.7)
Education<0.001
 No School35118 (70.2)2298 (75.3)32820 (69.8)
 Primary/middle school10708 (21.4)569 (18.6)10139 (21.6)
 High school3155 (6.3)133 (4.4)3022 (6.4)
 University1064 (2.1)51 (1.7)1013 (2.2)
Wealth<0.001
 Low14587 (29.1)814 (26.7)13773 (29.3)
 Low-Medium10097 (20.2)599 (19.6)9498 (20.2)
 Medium-High12348 (24.7)749 (24.6)11599 (24.7)
 High13010 (26.0)889 (29.1)12121 (25.8)
Physical activity<0.001
 Irregular non-intense30647 (61.4)2198 (72.2)28449 (60.7)
 Regular non-intense13536 (27.1)654 (21.5)12882 (27.5)
 Regular or irregular intense5695 (11.4)192 (6.3)5503 (11.8)
 BMI (kg/m2)26.7 (5.5)27.7 (5.7)26.6 (5.4)<0.001
Hypertension†<0.001
 Normotensive28628 (57.5)1032 (33.9)27596 (59.0)
 Hypertensive21197 (42.5)2012 (66.1)19185 (41.0)
Self-reported diabetes<0.001
 Non-diabetic46591 (93.1)2481 (81.3)44110 (93.9)
 Diabetic3454 (6.9)570 (18.7)2884 (6.1)
  • *Figures are the number of participants (percentage), except for age and BMI, for which mean (SD) is presented. Numbers may not add up to the total numbers due to missing data in some variables. p Values calculated using χ2 tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests for continuous variables.

  • †Including self-reported hypertension and individuals with high blood pressure at the baseline examination.

  • BMI, body mass index; HD, heart disease; IHD, ischaemic heart disease.