Table 4

Comparison of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters in athletes with and without LVNC*

Athletes fulfilling LVNC criteria (%) (n=93)Athletes without LVNC criteria (%) (n=1053)p Value
Group 1 (training related)1578.085.00.099
 Sinus Bradycardia47.340.00.186
 Early repolarisation38.715.00.0001
 Isolated LVH32.221.40.019
 First degree AV block7.55.50.357
 Incomplete RBBB14.016.50.660
Group 2 (non training related)1533.014.60.0001
 T-wave inversion16.17.10.004
  T- wave inversion V1–V410.05.90.173
  T-wave inversion inferior leads5.41.20.012
  T-wave inversion lateral leads2.20.50.014
 Deep T- wave inversion7.51.00.0003
 ST-segment depression1.10.10.156
 Left atrial enlargement1.10.20.224
 Right atrial enlargement0.00.0
 Left axis deviation7.52.80.025
 Right axis deviation11.84.70.013
 Right ventricular hypertrophy2.10.40.079
 QTc >440 ms (men)2.10.60.132
 QTc >460 ms (women)0.00.0
 Ventricular pre-excitation0.00.11.0000
 Complete LBBB or RBBB0.00.31.0000
 Pathological Q waves0.00.0
 Echocardiographic parameters(n=93)(n=1053)
 Ao (mm)28.4±4.328.4±4.21.000
 LA (cm2)15.9±4.617.9±4.40.0001
 LVED (mm)51.2±5.651.4±5.21.000
 Max-LVWT (mm)9.5±1.39.5±1.71.000
 LV EF (%)60.3±8.361.3±7.30.21
 S′ septal wall (cm/s)8.8±1.68.5±1.50.066
 S′ lateral wall (cm/s)11.8±4.011.1±3.00.037
 E/A2.0±0.62.2±1.40.172
 E′ septal wall (cm/s)12.2±1.812.8±2.40.019
 E′ lateral wall (cm/s)19.0±4.819.3±5.00.578
 E/E′ septal wall7.4±1.67.2±3.60.596
 E/E′ lateral wall5.0±1.24.9±2.70.723
 RA (cm2)15.3±4.515.3±4.71.000
 RVID1 (mm)40.0±6.938.4±7.80.056
 RVOT1 (mm)24.1±6.134.9±5.70.0001
  • *Data are expressed as mean±SD.

  • Definitions: Early repolarisation, >0.1 mm j-point elevation in two or more contiguous leads.

  • Ao, aortic annulus diameter; AV, atrio-ventricular block; E′, early diastolic annular peak velocity; E/A, ratio of early to late diastolic mitral inflow velocity; E/E′, ratio of peak early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity; LA, left atrial area; LBBB, left bundle branch block; LVED, LV end-diastolic diameter; LV EF, LV ejection fraction; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; LVNC, Left ventricular non-compaction; Max-LVWT, maximal left ventricular wall thickness; RA, right atrial area; RBBB, right bundle branch block; RVID1, right ventricular basal internal dimension; RVOT1, proximal right ventricular outflow tract dimension; S′, systolic annular peak velocity.