Table 3

Risk adjusted HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease events among patients with newly diagnosed hypertension

VariableAll-cause mortalityCardiovascular disease*Myocardial infarctionHeart failureStroke
Adjusted for age and sex
 Chinese versus white0.57 (0.56 to 0.59)0.46 (0.44 to 0.48)0.37 (0.34 to 0.4)0.42 (0.39 to 0.45)0.61 (0.57 to 0.65)
 South Asian versus white0.88 (0.85 to 0.91)0.93 (0.89 to 0.96)0.92 (0.88 to 0.97)0.92 (0.87 to 0.96)0.9 (0.85 to 0.95)
Among men
 Chinese versus white0.52 (0.5 to 0.55)0.43 (0.41 to 0.46)0.37 (0.34 to 0.41)0.39 (0.36 to 0.43)0.57 (0.52 to 0.62)
 South Asian versus white0.86 (0.82 to 0.9)0.93 (0.88 to 0.97)0.93 (0.87 to 0.99)0.89 (0.82 to 0.95)0.9 (0.83 to 0.98)
Among women
 Chinese versus white0.63 (0.6 to 0.66)0.5 (0.47 to 0.53)0.37 (0.33 to 0.41)0.45 (0.41 to 0.49)0.65 (0.6 to 0.71)
 South Asian versus white0.9 (0.87 to 0.95)0.93 (0.88 to 0.98)0.91 (0.84 to 0.99)0.95 (0.88 to 1.02)0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)
Among Chinese
 Women versus men0.77 (0.73 to 0.83)0.7 (0.64 to 0.76)0.45 (0.39 to 0.52)0.78 (0.69 to 0.88)0.82 (0.73 to 0.92)
Among South Asian
 Women versus men0.69 (0.64 to 0.73)0.61 (0.57 to 0.66)0.46 (0.42 to 0.52)0.73 (0.66 to 0.81)0.71 (0.64 to 0.8)
Among white
 Women versus men0.67 (0.66 to 0.67)0.63 (0.62 to 0.64)0.48 (0.47 to 0.49)0.7 (0.69 to 0.72)0.73 (0.71 to 0.74)
Adjusted for age, number of co-morbidities†, income quintile, and rural and urban residence
 Chinese versus white0.66 (0.64 to 0.68)0.49 (0.47 to 0.51)0.39 (0.36 to 0.42)0.47 (0.44 to 0.5)0.66 (0.62 to 0.70)
 South Asian versus white0.91 (0.88 to 0.94)0.94 (0.91 to 0.98)0.94 (0.90 to 0.99)0.95 (0.90 to 1.00)0.92 (0.87 to 0.97)
Among men
 Chinese versus white0.62 (0.59 to 0.65)0.46 (0.43 to 0.49)0.39 (0.36 to 0.43)0.44 (0.41 to 0.49)0.62 (0.57 to 0.68)
 South Asian versus white0.89 (0.85 to 0.93)0.94 (0.9 to 0.99)0.95 (0.89 to 1.01)0.92 (0.85 to 0.99)0.92 (0.85 to 1.00)
Among women
 Chinese versus white0.70 (0.67 to 0.74)0.70 (0.64 to 0.76)0.71 (0.56 to 0.91)0.65 (0.56 to 0.74)0.74 (0.67 to 0.81)
 South Asian versus white0.93 (0.89 to 0.97)0.91 (0.84 to 0.98)0.69 (0.53 to 0.89)1.02 (0.91 to 1.15)0.92 (0.84 to 1.00)
Among Chinese
 Women versus men0.83 (0.78 to 0.89)0.72 (0.66 to 0.78)0.46 (0.4 to 0.53)0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)0.85 (0.75 to 0.95)
Among South Asian
 Women versus men0.78 (0.73 to 0.83)0.63 (0.59 to 0.68)0.48 (0.43 to 0.53)0.80 (0.72 to 0.88)0.75 (0.67 to 0.84)
Among white
 Women versus men0.77 (0.76 to 0.78)0.65 (0.64 to 0.66)0.50 (0.49 to 0.51)0.78 (0.76 to 0.79)0.77 (0.76 to 0.79)
  • *Cardiovascular disease includes myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Analysis is based on up to 9 years’ follow-up of patients with hypertension.

  • †The co-morbidites include: myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, chronic pulmonary disease, connective tissue disease–rheumatic disease, peptic ulcer disease, diabetes with and without complications, paraplegia and hemiplegia, renal disease, liver disease (mild, moderate or severe), cancer and metastatic carcinoma, AIDS/HIV. Myocardial infarction, heart failure and cerebrovascular disease were excluded when estimating the HR for outcomes of myocardial infarction, heart failure or stroke.