Table 2

Angiographic and procedural characteristics and outcomes of 1363 patients undergoing CTO PCI, classified according to whether they had undergone CABG

VariableOverall (n=1363)With prior CABG (n=508)Without prior CABG (n=855)p ValueAntegrade approach (n=901)Retrograde approach (n=462)p Value
CTO target vessel<0.001<0.001
 Right coronary artery (%)5556.254.748.966.4
 Circumflex (%)2327.420.125.617.8
 Left anterior descending artery (%)2114.225.024.514.7
 Left main/bypass graft (%)
Prior failed attempt for CTO PCI (%)1513.016.60.82013.917.10.123
Antegrade wire escalation attempt (%)96.794.297.50.20610085.9<0.001
Antegrade dissection/re-entry attempt (%)28.929.428.70.91223.248.4<0.001
Retrograde approach attempt (%)3446.727.1<0.001NANA
Collateral vessel used for retrograde approach (%) (n=462)<0.001NA
 Septal (%)6852.877.6NA68
 Epicardial (%)2431.022.4NA24
 Bypass graft (%)817.2NANA8
Technical success rate (%)85.579.788.3<0.00187.880.9<0.001
Procedural success rate (%)<0.00187.178.5<0.001
Total procedure time (min)*113±61125±65106±58<0.00187.880.9<0.001
Total fluoroscopy time (min)*42±2949±3038±27<0.00187.178.5<0.001
Total air kerma radiation exposure (Gray)*4.7±3.85.5±5.04.3±3.00.0033.7±3.86.4±3.2<0.001
Total contrast volume (ml)*294±158296±156293±1600.762268±146343±168<0.001
Inhospital major complication, %
  • *Mean±SD.

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass graft surgery; CTO, chronic total occlusion; NA, not applicable; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.