Table 2

Studies that evaluated the association between miscarriage and cerebrovascular disease

Author (country)Study designDuration of follow-upOutcomeExposureNumber of casesNumber of non-casesResult (OR/HR and 95% CI)Covariates adjusted/matched on/stratified by
Gallagher et al (2011)24 (China)Prospective cohort11 yearsHaemorrhagic stroke (ICD-9 code 434)Recurrent miscarriage (2+)1372240 800*1.01 (0.80 to 1.29)Age
Ischaemic stroke (ICD-9 code 431)Recurrent miscarriage (2+)507240 800*1.36 (0.68 to 2.75)
Kharazmi et al (2010)20 (Finland)Community-based case-controlAll StrokeHistory of miscarriage21435431.1 (0.6 to 1.7)Age, education, BMI, WHR, number of previous pregnancies, smoking, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total and LDL cholesterol, and physical activity
Kharazmi et al (2011)21 (Germany)Prospective cohort study12 yearsAll Stroke (ICD-10 codes: I60.0– I64)History of miscarriage10710 9290.72 (0.42 to 1.25)Age, education, BMI, WHR, number of previous pregnancies, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia
Recurrent miscarriage (3+)8781691.31 (0.16 to 10.65)
Pell et al (2004)25 (Scotland)Retrospective cohort7 yearsAll Stroke and TIA (ICD-10 codes: I60–I69 and G45)History of miscarriage prior to first live birth342119 3261.49 (1.09 to 2.03)Age, deprivation category, preeclampsia, lowest birthweight quintile, preterm delivery and height
  • *Estimated from person-years, as data not provided.

  • BMI, body mass index; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; LDL, low density lipoprotein; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; WHR, waist to hip ratio.