TableĀ 2

Crucial areas of further research, clinical practice and critical issues for congenital heart disease (CHD) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa

ResearchEpidemiology of CHD
Contemporary burden of disease estimates
Incidence of ARF
Long-term pathogenesis and natural history studies on subclinical RHD
Ideal age of screening
Cost-effectiveness of echocardiography-based screening
Clinical practiceAntenatal screening of CHD
Postnatal screening for CHD: high index of clinical suspicion
Postnatal screening for critical CHD
Essential medicines, for example, penicillin, heart failure medicines and point-of-care INR
Critical issuesAdvocacy around cardiovascular diseases, congenital and acquired.
Funding: innovative methods of funding of programmes for prevention, diagnosis and management
Training for community, healthcare workers and patients with RHD and CHD
Awareness raising for CHD and RHD
Health worker retention and incentives
Development of integrated management pathways
Strengthening of health systems including primary healthcare
  • ARF, Acute Rheumatic Fever. INR, International Normalized Ratio.