Table 3

Univariable predictors of outcome

HR95% CIp ValueC Index
Demographics and clinical variables
 Gender, male1.49(0.72 to 3.05)0.280.596
 Body mass index ≥30 (kg/m2)1.89(0.84 to 4.26)0.120.556
 Age at repair ≥7 years2.51(1.25 to 5.05)0.010.596
 Age at CMR ≥50 years3.96(1.77 to 8.83)0.0010.579
 TOF with pulmonary atresia3.34(1.63 to 6.83)0.0010.636
 Prior systemic-pulmonary artery shunt2.40(1.18 to 4.86)0.020.618
 RV-to-PA conduit3.68(1.80 to 7.49)<0.0010.634
 Atrial arrhythmia*4.52(2.24 to 9.13)<0.0010.643
 Ventricular arrhythmia†2.23(1.08 to 4.57)0.030.566
ECG variables
 QRS duration (ms)↑101.11(0.97 to 1.27)0.120.578
 QRS duration ≥180 (ms)3.17(1.42 to 7.10)0.0050.586
Exercise variables
 Percent predicted peak work rate↓51.28(1.05 to 1.56)0.020.735
 Percent predicted peak VO2↓51.20(1.01 to 1.43)0.030.725
 Percent predicted VAT↓51.37(0.81 to 2.31)0.250.735
CMR variables
 RV end-diastolic volume index (mL/m2)↑51.00(0.96 to 1.03)0.770.500
 RV end-systolic volume index, mL/m2)↑51.03(0.99 to 1.07)0.150.609
 RV EF (%)↓51.36(1.14 to 1.61)<0.0010.710
 RV mass index (g/m2)↑101.25(1.14 to 1.36)<0.0010.758
 RV mass z score↑11.12(1.07 to 1.17)<0.0010.769
 RV mass/volume (g/mL)↑0.11.50(1.29 to 1.75)<0.0010.774
 Pulmonary regurgitation (%)↑50.96(0.86 to 1.08)0.480.516
 LV end-diastolic volume index (mL/m2)↑51.06(0.98 to 1.13)0.130.522
 LV end-systolic volume index (mL/m2)↑51.15(1.07 to 1.24)<0.0010.650
 LV EF (%)↓51.40(1.15 to 1.70)0.0010.697
 LV mass index (g/m2)↑101.28(1.19 to 1.39)<0.0010.749
 LV mass/volume (g/mL)↑0.11.16(1.07 to 1.27)<0.0010.765
 RV/LV end-diastolic volume ratio↓11.32(0.71 to 2.45)0.390.575
  • *Defined as atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, or supraventricular tachycardia.

  • †Defined >20 couplets or >100 isolated premature ventricular complexes in a 24-h period, or nonsustained VT.

  • CMR, cardiac MR; PA, pulmonary artery; TOF, tetralogy of Fallot; VAT, ventilatory aerobic threshold; VT, ventricular tachycardia.