Table 1

Baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of the patient population

CharacteristicsOverall
(n=239)
No significant lead-induced TR
(n=148)
Significant lead-induced TR
(n=91)
p Value
Age, years60±1460±1461±130.893
Male, n (%)184 (77)114 (77)70 (77)0.985
Ischemic heart disease, n (%)153 (64)96 (65)57 (63)0.728
QRS duration, ms114±28112±28116±280.362
PM/ICD, n (%)48 (20)/191 (80)29 (20)/119 (80)19 (21)/72 (79)0.810
PM indication: SSS/AV block, n (%)27 (56)/21 (44)*16 (55)/13 (45)*11 (58)/8 (42)*0.955
ICD indication: primary prevention n (%)119 (62)†78 (66)†41 (57)†0.183
Percentage of pacing for PM, median [IQR]100 [100–100]100 [100–100]100 [97–100]0.065
Percentage of pacing for ICD, median [IQR]0 [0–1]0 [0–0]0 [0–2]0.149
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)75 (31)40 (27)35 (38)0.056
Diabetes, n (%)42 (18)29 (20)13 (14)0.308
NYHA functional class2 [1–2]2 [1–2]2 [1–2]0.727
LVEDV, mL151±63149±58151±710.808
LVESV, mL95±5496±4995±610.892
LVEF, %39±1438±1440±130.356
E/A ratio1.0 [0.7–1.4]1.1 [0.8–1.6]1.0 [0.7–1.4]0.748
E-wave deceleration time, ms225±74217±73238±750.053
Average E’, cm/s6.49±2.416.22±2.166.93±2.720.096
E/E’ ratio11 [8–15]11 [8–15]12 [8–16]0.737
Mitral regurgitation grade ≥2‡62 (29)40 (29)22 (27)0.723
Left atrial volume, mL/m236±736±737±80.443
RV end-diastolic area, mm216.1±5.016.5±5.115.3±4.80.074
RV fractional area change, %39±1238±1341±110.082
TAPSE, mm17.0±417.0±4.417.4±4.50.481
Right atrial diameter, cm3.5±0.93.6±0.93.5±0.90.298
Tricuspid annular diameter, cm3.6±0.83.6±0.83.6±0.80.931
sPAP, mm Hg33±1232.9±12.033.0±11.00.916
Tricuspid regurgitation grade 081 (33.9)57 (38.5)24 (26.4)0.056
Tricuspid regurgitation grade 1131 (54.8)71 (48.0)60 (65.9)
Tricuspid regurgitation grade 222 (9.2)16 (10.8)6 (6.6)
Tricuspid regurgitation grade 35 (2.1)4 (2.7)1 (1.1)
  • Values are mean±SD or median [IQR].

  • *Among patients with PM; †among patients with ICD; ‡MR grade was available in 217 patients.

  • AV block, atrioventricular block; ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular EF; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PM, permanent pacemaker; sPAP, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure; SSS, sick sinus syndrome; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TR, tricuspid regurgitation.