Table 2

Changes in echocardiographic variables over time (from baseline to 1–1.5 year follow-up) in patients with and without significant lead-induced TR

VariablesNo significant lead-induced TR (n=148)Significant lead-induced TR (n=91)p Value
BaselineFollow-upBaselineFollow-upInteraction group and time
LVEDV, mL149±58156±65151±71163±65*0.507
LVESV, mL96±49103±59*95±61107±56*0.441
LVEF,%38±1437±1240±1336±11*0.064
E/A ratio1.1 [0.8–1.6]0.9 [0.7–1.4]1.0 [0.7–1.4]1.1 [0.6–1.9]0.961
E-wave deceleration time, ms217±73234±72238±75238±870.227
Average E’ (cm/s)6.22±2.165.93±1.916.93±2.726.95±2.700.680
E/E’ ratio11 [8–15]11 [8–19]12 [8–16]11 [8–18]0.603
Mitral regurgitation grade 0†51 (38)44 (32)30 (37)27 (33)0.276
Mitral regurgitation grade 145 (33)48 (35)29 (36)30 (37)
Mitral regurgitation grade 231 (23)33 (24)16 (20)18 (22)
Mitral regurgitation grade 37 (5)10 (7)6 (7)6 (7)
Mitral regurgitation grade 42 (2)3 (2)1 (1)
Left atrial volume (mL/m2)36±738±737±840±90.366
RV end-diastolic area, mm217±516±515±517±6*0.009
RV fractional area change,%38±1337±1141±1137±13*0.154
TAPSE, mm17±416±4*17±517±50.849
Right atrium diameter, mm36±936±835±939±10*<0.001
Tricuspid annular diameter, mm36±836±836±839±9*0.074
sPAP, mmHg33±1233±1033±1141±15*<0.001
  • Values are mean±SD or median [IQR]. Bold p values are statistically significant.

  • *p<0.05, baseline versus follow-up.

  • †Mitral regurgitation grade was available in 217 patients at baseline and in 220 patients at follow-up.

  • LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular EF; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; sPAP, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TR, tricuspid regurgitation.