Table 3

Univariate and multivariate Cox regression survival analysis for the primary endpoint (all-cause mortality)

VariablesUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
HR95% CIp ValueHR95% CIp Value
Age, per year1.0791.048 to 1.112<0.0011.0641.032 to 1.098<0.001
Male sex1.1940.635 to 2.2460.582
Ischaemic aetiology1.6840.963 to 2.9440.068
Atrial fibrillation1.3730.823 to 2.2900.224
Diabetes1.7050.963 to 3.0180.067
ICD system (versus PM)0.8970.507 to 1.5890.710
Percentage of pacing, per %1.0071.002 to 1.0130.0061.0081.002 to 1.0150.008
LVEDV, per mL1.0051.002 to 1.0090.001
LVESV, per mL1.0071.004 to 1.011<0.001
LVEF, per %0.9680.946 to 0.9900.0050.9730.947 to 0.9990.041
Mitral regurgitation grade 0 (reference group)0.0280.510
Mitral regurgitation grade 1 (vs reference group)0.4490.219 to 0.9221.1850.522 to 2.691
Mitral regurgitation grade 2 (vs reference group)0.8400.409 to 1.7271.4450.626 to 3.336
Mitral regurgitation grade 3 (vs reference group)1.8150.737 to 4.4682.0670.695 to 6.146
Mitral regurgitation grade 4 (vs reference group)2.6950.632 to 11.4832.6340.662 to 10.488
RV end-diastolic area, per mm21.0691.025 to 1.1140.002
RV fractional area change, per %0.9750.953 to 0.9960.022
TAPSE, per mm0.9140.856 to 0.9760.0070.9740.910 to 1.0420.447
Right atrial diameter, per mm1.4121.071 to 1.8610.014
Tricuspid annular diameter, per mm1.7481.325 to 2.306<0.001
sPAP, per mm Hg1.0461.029 to 1.063<0.001
Significant lead-induced TR1.6871.023 to 2.7800.0401.7491.008 to 3.0350.047
  • Bold values are statistically significant.

  • ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular EF; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; PM, permanent pacemaker; sPAP, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TR, tricuspid regurgitation.