Table 2

Predictive factors of early (30-day or in-hospital) mortality after TAVI

Alive (n=2299)Dead (n=253)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
Age (years)82.7±7.2 (2299)84.1±6.4 (253)1.03 (1.01 to 1.05)0.002
Female sex1135/2299 (49.4)129/253 (51.0)1.07 (0.82 to 1.38)0.63
Height (m)1.63±0.89 (2297)1.63±0.88 (252)0.99 (0.98 to 1.01)0.28
Weight (kg)69.9±14.5 (2299)66.0±13.2 (252)0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)<0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.2±5.1 (2297)24.9±4.5 (236)0.94 (0.92 to 0.97)<0.0001
High-risk conditions for surgery
 Porcelain aorta180/2295 (7.8)21/253 (8.3)0.94 (0.59 to 1.51)0.80
 Thoracic deformation43/2295 (1.9)10/253 (4.0)0.46 (0.23 to 0.94)0.03
 Radiation therapy123/2295 (5.4)14/253 (5.5)0.97 (0.55 to 1.71)0.91
 Other comorbidities not included in risk scores1364/2295 (59.4)156/253 (61.7)0.91 (0.70 to 1.19)0.49
 Refusal of surgery213/2295 (9.3)30/253 (11.8)0.76 (0.51 to 1.14)0.19
Functional status
 NYHA class<0.0001
  I–II–III2026/2289 (88.5)194/251 (77.3)1
  IV263/2289 (11.5)57/251 (22.7)2.26 (1.64 to 3.12)
 At least two episodes of APE during the last year239/2292 (10.4)50/253 (19.8)2.12 (1.51 to 2.96)<0.0001
 Angina pectoris337/2299 (14.7)41/253 (16.2)1.13 (0.79 to 1.60)0.51
 Unstable angina*63/2291 (2.8)8/253 (3.2)1.16 (0.55 to 2.44)0.71
 Syncope188/2299 (8.2)33/253 (13.0)1.68 (1.14 to 2.50)0.009
ECG
 Atrial fibrillation562/2272 (24.7)74/248 (29.8)1.29 (0.97 to 1.73)0.08
 Pacemaker326/2290 (14.2)33/251 (13.2)0.91 (0.62 to 1.34)0.64
 Right bundle branch block219/2253 (9.7)24/244 (9.8)1.01 (.65 to 1.58)0.95
 Left bundle branch block266/2253 (11.8)32/244 (13.1)1.13 (0.76 to 1.68)0.55
Risk factors
 Active smoking68/2299 (3.0)9/253 (3.6)1.21 (.60 to 2.46)0.60
 Hypertension1603/2299 (69.7)170/253 (67.2)0.89 (0.67 to 1.17)0.41
 Diabetes600/2299 (26.1)59/253 (23.3)0.86 (0.63 to 1.17)0.34
 Dyslipidemia1125/2299 (48.9)103/253 (40.7)0.72 (0.55 to 0.93)0.01
Comorbidities
 Prior myocardial infarction338/2299 (14.7)47/253 (18.6)1.32 (0.95 to 1.86)0.10
 Coronary artery stenosis >50%1067/2254 (47.3)120/240 (50.0)1.11 (0.85 to 1.45)0.43
 Extent of coronary disease0.72
  1-vessel disease450/1063 (42.3)47/119 (39.5)1
  2-vessel disease319/1063 (30.1)35/119 (29.4)1.05 (0.66 to 1.66)
  3-vessel disease294/1063 (27.6)37/119 (31.1)1.20 (0.76 to 1.90)
 Prior coronary bypass grafting412/2299 (17.9)48/253 (19.0)1.07 (0.77 to 1.49)0.68
 Prior cardiac surgery*447/2291 (19.5)50/253 (19.8)1.02 (0.73 to 1.41)0.92
 Prior aortic valvuloplasty357/2299 (15.5)58/253 (22.9)1.62 (1.18 to 2.22)0.003
 Lower limb arteritis446/2299 (19.4)68/253 (26.7)1.53 (1.14 to 2.05)0.005
 Abdominal aortic aneurysm102/2299 (4.4)10/253 (4.0)0.88 (0.46 to 1.72)0.72
 Peripheral artery disease*611/2291 (26.7)74/253 (29.3)1.14 (0.85 to 1.51)0.38
 Respiratory insufficiency†536/2299 (23.3)84/253 (33.2)1.64 (1.24 to 2.16)0.0005
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease*519/2292 (22.6)68/253 (26.9)1.26 (0.94 to 1.69)0.13
 Hemoglobin (g/dL)12.1±1.7 (2224)12.1±1.7 (244)1.00 (0.92 to 1.08)0.95
 Creatinine clearance (mL/min)‡48.3±24.6 (2229)45.7±20.6 (242)1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.06
 Dialysis44/2299 (1.9)12/253 (4.7)2.55 (1.33 to 4.90)0.004
 Prior cerebrovascular accident220/2299 (9.6)26/253 (10.3)1.08 (0.71 to 1.66)0.72
 Neurological dysfunction*175/2291 (7.6)23/253 (9.1)1.21 (0.77 to 1.91)0.41
 Severe chronic neuropathy31/2299 (1.4)1/253 (0.4)0.29 (0.04 to 2.14)0.20
 Life expectancy <1 year49/2299 (2.1)10/253 (4.0)1.89 (0.95 to 3.78)0.07
 Oral anticoagulation548/2299 (23.8)63/253 (24.9)1.06 (0.78 to 1.43)0.71
 Antiplatelet drug1489/2299 (64.8)167/253 (66.0)1.06 (0.80 to 1.39)0.69
Echocardiographic data
 Annular diameter (mm)22.1±2.2 (2132)22.3±2.1 (225)1.03 (0.97 to 1.10)0.31
 Mean gradient (mm  Hg)48.6±16.4 (2246)46.4±18.0 (247)0.99 (0.98 to 1.00)0.06
 Valve area (cm2)0.67±0.18 (2177)0.68±0.19 (239)1.28 (0.61 to 2.67)0.51
 LVEF(%)53.5±14.1 (2267)51.5±14.8 (251)0.99 (0.98 to 1.00)0.04
 Aortic regurgitation0.88
  0129/2297 (5.6)14/253 (5.5)1
  1855/2297 (37.2)95/253 (37.6)1.02 (0.57 to 1.85)
  2922/2297 (40.1)105/253 (41.5)1.05 (0.58 to 1.89)
  ≥3391/2297 (17.0)39/253 (15.4)0.92 (0.48 to 1.75)
 Mitral regurgitation0.10
  0121/2297 (5.3)14/253 (5.5)1
  1712/2297 (31.0)71/253 (28.1)0.86 (0.47 to 1.58)
  2992/2297 (43.2)100/253 (39.5)0.87 (0.48 to 1.57)
  ≥3472/2297 (20.5)68/253 (26.9)1.25 (0.68 to 2.29)
 Systolic PAP (mm  Hg)45.1±14.1 (1787)46.9±14.1 (207)1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)0.10
 Systolic PAP >60 mm  Hg*579/2291 (25.3)85/253 (33.6)1.50 (1.13 to 1.97)0.004
Procedure
 Critical preoperative state*73/2291 (3.2)24/253 (9.5)3.19 (1.97 to 5.15)<0.0001
 Emergency intervention51/2291 (2.2)11/253 (4.4)2.00 (1.03 to 3.88)0.04
 General anaesthesia1559/2298 (67.8)195/253 (77.1)1.59 (1.17 to 2.16)0.003
 Prosthesis0.10
  Edwards Sapien1519/2296 (66.2)177/248 (71.4)1
  Medtronic Corevalve777/2296 (33.8)71/248 (28.6)0.78 (0.59 to 1.05)
 Approach0.0001
  Transfemoral or subclavian1835/2288 (80.2)173/249 (69.5)1
  Transapical384/2288 (16.8)65/249 (26.1)1.80 (1.32 to 2.44)
  Other69/2288 (3.0)11/249 (4.4)1.69 (0.88 to 3.26)
  • Univariate analysis in the development cohort of 2552 patients. Values are mean ± SD (available data) or n (%).

  • *Definitions according to the Euroscore.

  • †Obstructive or non-obstructive symptomatic respiratory disease.

  • ‡According to the Cockroft–Gault formula.

  • APE, acute pulmonary oedema; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PAP, pulmonary artery pressure; TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve implantation.