Table 1

Baseline patient characteristics and haemodynamic data

VariableAll subjectsDeath, septostomy, WHO class IVLiving, WHO class ≤III
nMedian (IQR), or (%)nMedian (IQR), or (%)nMedian (IQR), or (%)p Value
Age (years)509.5 (6.0, 15.7)1116.9 (6.9, 20.3)2911.8 (6.2, 14.9)0.1
Diagnosis %0.6
 Idiopathic PH21435451448
 Repaired CHD13261927
 Minor CHD112319724
 Unrepaired CHD48436621
Male gender %204021815510.06
BSA (m2)501.08 (0.8, 1.6)111.57 (0.85, 1.7)291.14 (0.8, 1.6)0.2
Pulmonary hypertension medications %0.2
 Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor31629811862
 Prostacyclin20406541448
 Home oxygen2040545931
 Calcium channel blocker14282181034
 Endothelin receptor antagonist1212218931
Days between catheter and echo (days)501 (1, 23)111 (1, 23)291 (1, 19)0.6
Time from diagnosis to catheter (years)493.43 (0.5, 6.4)102.33 (0, 8.0)293.8 (1.4, 6.8)0.5
Heart rate (BPM)4988 (74 100)1188 (77 100)2888 (69, 97)0.5
Mean RA pressure (mm Hg)476 (4, 7)105 (4, 6)276 (3, 7)0.6
Maximum PA pressure (mm Hg)5050.5 (40, 75)1193 (66 109)2946 (40, 62)0.001
Minimum PA pressure (mm Hg)5021 (12, 37)1144 (25, 63)2918 (12, 31)0.006
Mean PA pressure (mm Hg)5033.5 (24, 54)1165 (42, 83)2932 (24, 46)0.001
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (mm Hg)508 (6, 10)118 (5, 10)298 (7, 10)0.5
Mean aortic pressure (mm Hg)4961 (55, 70)1169 (55, 77)2962 (56, 70)0.7
Stroke volume index (mL/m2)490.04 (0.03, 0.06)110.03 (0.02, 0.05)280.05 (0.04, 0.06)0.03
Cardiac index (L/min/m2)503.8 (3.1, 4.7)113.1 (2.3, 3.5)293.9 (3.2, 4.7)0.03
Pulmonary vascular resistance (WU m2)506.5 (3.7, 11.6)1118.5 (11.1, 29.2)296.4 (4.1, 9.3)0.001
Systemic vascular resistance (WU m2)4913.7 (11.5, 18.5)1118.5 (12.8, 25.5)2814.2 (11.7, 17.9)0.08
Indexed pulmonary blood flow (L/min/m2)503.8 (3.0, 4.8)112.8 (2.3, 3.5)294.2 (3.2, 5.1)0.001
Tricuspid annular systolic plane excursion (cm)491.5 (1.2, 1.8)111.3 (1.2, 1.9)291.5 (1.4, 1.8)0.3
Myocardial Performance Index500.40 (0.21, 0.57)110.62 (0.55, 0.79)290.30 (0.19, 0.62)0.0007
RV fractional area change (%)4943 (31, 51)1141 (27, 53)2943 (34, 50)0.5
Indexed RV stroke work (mm Hg×mL/m2)481666 (1120, 2124)101923 (1599, 3277)281700 (1138, 1991)0.3
  • Bold text indicates a statistically significant result (p-value <0.05).

  • BSA, body surface area; CHD, congenital heart disease; PA, pulmonary arterial; RA, right atrial; WU, Wood's units.