Table 1

Seasonal variation estimates of cardiovascular risk factors

 Northern HemisphereSouthern Hemisphere
Seasonal variationNadirPeakAdjusted R2 Seasonal variationNadirPeakAdjusted R2
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)*0.26†JulyJanuary0.970.52†DecemberJune0.78
Waist circumference (cm) *0.57†JulyJanuary0.950.770.82‡
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)§2.93†JuneDecember0.953.44†JanuaryJuly0.98
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)§1.42†JuneDecember0.960.86†NovemberMay0.59
Triglycerides (mmol/L)§0.02†AprilOctober0.940.07†JulyJanuary0.87
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)§0.10†JuneDecember0.910.21†OctoberApril0.85
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)§0.01†AugustFebruary0.930.040.64
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)§0.11†JulyJanuary0.910.100.89‡
Glycaemia (mmol/L)§0.07†AugustFebruary0.980.17†OctoberApril0.67
  • Data from 21 studies from the Northern Hemisphere and 3 from the Southern Hemisphere. Results are presented as seasonal variation, nadir, peak and adjusted R2 (percentage of variance explained).

  • *Adjusted for gender, age and smoking.

  • †Seasonal variation statistically significant at 5% level, that is, at least one of the associated p values of sine or cosine functions <0.05.

  • ‡Data were available for two studies only.

  • §Adjusted for gender, age, smoking and Body Mass Index.