Table 1

Clinical characteristics in the groups by severity of aortic regurgitation (percentages represent a ratio for the completed dataset)

All (n=2440)No AR (n=787)Mild AR (n=1400)Moderate/severe AR (n=253)p Value
Male (n(%))1296 (53.1)384 (48.8)751 (53.7)160 (63.2)<0.0003
Age (mean±SEM)81.6±0.281.3±0.381.7±0.281.2±0.50.29
Height (mean±SEM)1.65±0.011.64±0.01*1.65±0.01*1.67±0.01<0.0001
Weight (mean±SEM)73.1±0.473.0±0.673.1±0.473.4±1.00.93
BMI (mean±SEM)26.9±0.127.1±0.226.9±0.226.3±0.30.16
Logistic EuroSCORE (mean±SEM)21.6±0.320.5±0.522.3±0.4†21.1±0.80.04
Peak pressure gradient (mm Hg) (mean±SEM)80.1±0.576.3±0.9*81.5±0.1†83.8±1.8†<0.0001
Aortic valve Area (cm2) (mean±SEM)0.65±0.010.66±0.010.64±0.010.63±0.010.13
Annulus diameter (mm) (mean±SEM)22.56±0.0522.31±0.08*22.60±0.06†23.19±0.15†<0.001
LVEF>50%1472 (60.9)491 (63.1)842 (60.6)139 (55.6)0.29
LVEF 30–49%721 (29.8)216 (27.8)421 (30.3)84 (33.6)
LVEF <30% (n(%))223 (9.2)71 (9.1)125 (9.0)27 (10.8)
Pulmonary hypertension (PASP >60 mm Hg) (n(%))313 (14.5)82 (12.5)187 (14.7)44 (19.3)0.04
NYHA I50 (2)25 (3.2)24 (1.7)1 (0.4)0.05
NYHA II387 (15.9)133 (16.9)220 (15.8)34 (13.4)
NYHA III1531 (63.0)500 (63.8)871 (62.6)160 (63.2)
NYHA IV (n(%))459 (18.9)125 (15.9)276 (19.8)58 (22.9)
Coronary artery disease (n(%))1123 (46.5)366 (46.8)639 (46.2)118(47.0)0.94
LMS disease (n(%))142 (5.9)35 (4.5)93 (6.7)14 (5.6)0.09
Porcelain aorta (n(%))566 (23.4)232 (29.6)278 (20.1)56 (22.3)<0.001
Previous cardiac surgery (n(%))745 (30.6)235 (29.9)439 (31.4)71 (28.1)0.49
Diabetes mellitus (n(%))546 (22.5)173 (22.1)336 (24.2)37 (14.6)<0.005
PVD (n(%))667 (28.4)188 (26.2)400 (28.9)79 (31.4)0.19
Creatinine (mean±SEM)116.6±1.36115.9±2.6117.5±1.8115.2±3.30.81
Previous CVA (n(%))362 (14.9)109 (13.9)223 (16.1)30 (11.9)0.12
Aortic annulus measurement pre-TAVI<0.0001
TTE593 (24.5)162 (20.8)353 (25.3)78 (30.9)
TOE1698 (70.0)562 (72.1)973 (69.8)163 (64.7)
CT87 (3.6)26 (3.3)55 (3.9)6 (2.3)
MR14 (0.6)4 (0.5)7 (0.5)3 (1.2)
Angiography (n(%))33 (1.3)26 (3.3)5 (0.4)2 (0.8)
  • ANOVA followed by Tukey posthoc test.

  • χ2 Test likelihood ratio for categorical variables.

  • *Significant difference against moderate-severe AR group.

  • †Significant difference against no AR group.

  • BMI, Body Mass Index; CVA, cardiovascular accident; LMS, left main stem; LVEF, left ventricular EF; MR, magnetic resonance; PASP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; TOE, transoesophageal echocardiography; TTE, transthoracic echocardiography.