Table 1

Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of 435 patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis (MPG ≤40 mm  Hg, AVA <1.0 cm2, EF≥55%)

All patientsVR<0.25VR≥0.25p Value
n=435n=197n=238
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
Age (years)69.8969.5970.090.56
Female (%)554366<0.001
Height (cm)167816991668<0.001
Weight (kg)7414751474140.38
Body surface area (m2)1.830.21.850.21.810.20.02
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.64.326.1427.050.05
Blood pressure systolic (mm Hg)1462114621147210.22
Blood pressure diasystolic (mm Hg)8211821083110.37
Heart rate (min−1)681067969110.04
Low-density lipoprotein (mg/dl)1413313935139350.50
Triglycerides (mg/dl)1215512054122530.81
Creatinine (mg/dl)1.00.21.00.21.00.20.20
Glucose (mmol/l)9516961794120.50
LV end-diastolic diameter (mm)49.0650.3647.96<0.001
LV end-systolic diameter (mm)31.0532.3529.95<0.001
SVI (VTI, ml/m2)35.1734.8835.370.50
SVI (Teichholz, ml/m2)41.41142.51040.5120.06
LV mass index (g/m2)9931105329428<0.001
EF (%)66.6665.4667.56<0.001
EF (Teichholz, %)66.2764.8767.270.001
LVOT diameter (mm)20.22.121.52.119.11.4<0.001
VTI aortic valve (cm)78.01382.51374.212<0.001
VTI LVOT (cm)20.1417.7322.14<0.001
Jet velocity LVOT (m/s)0.870.20.780.10.940.2<0.001
Jet velocity aortic valve (m/s)3.30.53.50.43.20.5<0.001
MPG (mm Hg)26728.5724.37<0.001
Aortic valve area (cm2)0.820.10.780.10.860.1<0.001
Aortic valve area index (cm2/m2)0.490.080.420.080.480.07<0.001
VR0.260.060.220.030.30.04NA
  • Values are presented as mean±SD and range for continuous or percentage for categorical variables.

  • AVA, aortic valve area; LVOT, LV outflow tract; MPG, mean pressure gradient; VR, velocity ratio; VTI, velocity time integral.