Table 2

Electrocardiographic findings in athletes with or without TWI

CharacteristicsOverall
n=2261
Normal T waves n=2125TWI
n=136
p Value
Heart rate (bpm, mean±SD)68.7±12.7 (37–110)67.2±10.2 (37–110)77.2±3.5 (47–102)<0.0001
PR interval (ms, mean±SD)137±27.1 (80–210)137±27 (80–210)133±2.4 (80–170)0.19
QRS duration (ms, mean±SD)91.1±10.4 (80–150)91.2±10.4 (80–150)88.8±10 (80–145)0.003
QTc (ms, mean±SD)396±21.0 (307–510)396±21 (307–510)397±19 (356–440)0.46
QRS axis, degrees, mean±SD61.2 ±25.0 (−80–140)61.2±25 (−80–140)58±26 (−15–91)0.37
Common/training-related abnormalities, n (%)
 Early repolarisation pattern853 (37.7)372 (16.4)481 (21.3)0.09
 Isolated LVH Sokolow–Lyon criteria*609 (26.9)219 (9.7)390 (17.2)0.07
 Isolated LVH Romhilt criteria†69 (3.1)67 (3.1)2 (1.5)0.19
 Sinus bradycardia534 (23.6)517 (24.3)17 (12.5)0.04
 Incomplete RBBB355 (15.7)287 (12.7)68 (3.0)0.07
 First degree atrio-ventricular block10 (04)8 (0.38)0 (0)0.34
Uncommon/training-unrelated abnormalities, n (%)
 TWI136 (6.0)0 (0)136 (100)
 QRS axis deviation‡26 (1.1)25 (1.2)1 (0.7)0.22
 Left anterior hemiblock9 (0.4)9 (0.4)0 (0)0.364
 Complete RBBB4 (0.2)3 (0.14)1 (0.7)0.44
 Ventricular pre-excitation3 (0.1)2 (0.09)1 (0.7)0.65
 Brugada-like early repolarisation2 (0.1)2 (0.09)0 (0)0.644
 Q wave in infero-lateral leads1 (0.04)0 (0)1 (0.7)0.735
 Long QT interval1 (0.04)1 (0.05)0 (0)0.879
  • Data ranges are presented in parentheses.

  • *Sokolow–Lyon criteria:16 RV1+SV5 >35 mm.

  • †Romhilt criteria:17 RV2+SV5-V6 > 40 mm.

  • ‡Left (≤–30°) or right (≥+120°) axis deviation.

  • LVH, LV hypertrophy; QTc, corrected QT interval; RBBB, right bundle branch block; TWI, T wave inversion.