Table 2

Basic pathophysiological mechanisms activated by exposure to particulate matter in animal and human subjects

Pathophysiological mechanismSelected references
Systemic inflammation10, 11
Systemic oxidative stress10, 16
Thrombosis and coagulation17, 18
Hypertension7, 8, 19
Vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis10, 20, 21
Heart rate variability, ECG changes and arrhythmias22–24
Myocardial fibrosis and heart failure15, 25, 26
Epigenetic changes and gene expression7, 27