Table 1

Baseline demographics of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) vs controls (values represent mean±SD or median (IQR) as appropriate)

rTOF* (n=90)Controls (n=15)p Value
Age (years)32.7±11.2730.3±4.990.82
Gender (male/female)53/327/8
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)24.4±4.9424.4±2.760.92
Heart rate (bpm)84±1570±8<0.05
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)116.6±15.2113.2±14.50.45
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)72.5±11.473.5±8.50.76
ANP (pmol/L)6.9 (4.0–9.9)3.3 (1.0–4.0)<0.05
BNP (pmol/L)8.9 (5.9–14.6)5.4 (2.2–7.5)<0.05
Endothelin-1 (pmol/L)1.14 (0.94–1.48)0.75 (0.44–0.93)<0.05
Renin (pmol/L)55.0 (45.5–66.5)18.6 (12.0–22.7)<0.05
Aldosterone (nmol/L)357 (295–450)320 (250–402)0.10
Haemoglobin (g/dL)14.8±1.6414.2±1.140.21
Sodium (mmol/L)138.3±2.16137.4±1.840.15
Creatinine (micmol/L)78.8±19.476.8±9.60.69
CRP (mg/L)7.51±3.576.13±1.960.16
QRS duration (ms)147±28.3
Cardiothoracic ratio (%)55±6
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (n=65 with RER >1)
 Peak VO2 (mL/kg/min)27.0±8.4
 Predicted peak VO2 (%)79.4±18.1
 VE/VCO2 (mL/kg/min)29.5±7.4
Anaerobic threshold (mL/kg/min)16.9±5.2
Symptoms, n (%)
 NYHA Class I64 (71)
 NYHA Class II20 (22)
 NYHA Classes III and IV6 (7)
Age at primary repair (years)6.0 (IQR 0.25–48.0)
Surgical history, n (%)
 Previous palliative procedure42 (47)
  Blalock–Taussig shunt23 (26)
  Waterston shunt13 (14)
  Brock procedure6 (7)
Nature of repair, n (%)
Transannular patch45 (50)
RVOT patch23 (26)
Conduit insertion11 (12)
Surgical history not available11 (12)
Redo surgery for pulmonary valve replacement12 (13)
Medications, n (%)
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/ angiotensin receptor blockers5 (6)
 β blockers6 (7)
 Digoxin3 (4)
 Diuretics9 (11)
 Antiarrhythmics (Amiodarone, Sotalol)12 (14)
  • Statistically significant p values are highlighted in bold.

  • *Nine (10%) patients have pulmonary atresia subtype, 1 patient with absent pulmonary valve and 1 double outlet RV.

  • ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; VE/VCO2, ventilatory efficiency; VO2, peak oxygen uptake; RVOT, RV outflow tract; NYHA, New York Heart Association; CRP, C-reactive protein; RER, respiratory exchange ratio.