Table 2

Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score ratios* (95% CIs) by categories of coffee consumption

Daily coffee consumptionP for quadratic trend†
None<1 cup1–<3 cups3–<5 cups≥5 cups
Model 1‡1.000.86 (0.55 to 1.34)0.82 (0.53 to 1.26)0.78 (0.50 to 1.22)1.17 (0.66 to 2.06)0.20
Model 2§1.000.77 (0.49 to 1.19)0.66 (0.43 to 1.02)0.59 (0.38 to 0.93)0.81 (0.46 to 1.43)0.02
Model 3¶1.000.76 (0.49 to 1.18)0.68 (0.44 to 1.05)0.62 (0.39 to 0.97)0.79 (0.45 to 1.40)0.07
  • *Derived from robust Tobit regression models using loge(CAC+1) as the outcome.

  • †Derived from the quadratic trend tests by including a linear and quadratic term of the median coffee consumption value within each group in the regression models.

  • ‡Model 1: Adjusted for age, sex, centre, and year of screening examination.

  • §Model 2: Model 1 with additional adjustments for education level (high school graduate or less, community college or university graduate, graduate school or higher, and unknown), physical activity (inactive, minimally active, health enhancing physical activity, and unknown), smoking (never, former, and current smoker), body mass index (kg/m2), parental history of coronary heart disease (yes vs no), alcohol consumption (none, <5, 5–<20, ≥20 g/day, and unknown), total energy consumption (kcal/d), consumption of fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats (quartiles, g/day).

  • ¶Model 3: Model 2 with additional adjustments for potential intermediate variables, including systolic blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.