Table 3

Risk of total (fatal and non-fatal) CHD and stroke incidence by quintiles of chocolate intake in EPIC-Norfolk (1993–2008)

Range (g/day)TotalQuintile 1
0
Quintile 2
0.6–3.5
Quintile 3
4.1–7.0
Quintile 4
7.2–15.5
Quintile 5
15.6–98.8
p Linearity
CHD/n (%)2434/20 951 (11.6)577/4195 (13.8)564/4437 (12.7)437/4035 (10.8)449/4106 (10.9)407/4178 (9.7)
 Model 11.000.97 (0.86 to 1.09)0.97 (0.86 to 1.10)0.87 (0.77 to 0.99)0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)0.003
 Model 21.001.01 (0.90 to 1.13)1.01 (0.89 to 1.15)0.91 (0.80 to 1.03)0.88 (0.77 to 1.01)0.024
 Model 31.001.03 (0.91 to 1.15)1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)0.92 (0.81 to 1.05)0.91 (0.80 to 1.04)0.06
1754/16 162 (10.9)435/3251 (13.4)407/3406 (11.9)307/3102 (9.9)325/3220 (10.1)280/3183 (8.8)
 Model 4a1.001.00 (0.87 to 1.15)0.98 (0.85 to 1.14)0.88 (0.76 to 1.01)0.83 (0.71 to 0.97)0.006
 Model 4b1.001.00 (0.87 to 1.14)0.98 (0.84 to 1.13)0.87 (0.75 to 1.01)0.82 (0.70 to 0.97)0.005
Stroke/n (%)848/20 951 (4.0)226/4195 (5.4)187/4437 (4.2)139/4035 (3.4)165/4106 (4.0)131/4178 (3.1)
 Model 11.000.83 (0.68 to 1.00)0.84 (0.68 to 1.04)0.85 (0.70 to 1.04)0.77 (0.62 to 0.96)0.036
 Model 21.000.85 (0.70 to 1.03)0.87 (0.70 to 1.07)0.86 (0.70 to 1.06)0.77 (0.62 to 0.97)0.046
 Model 31.000.86 (0.71 to 1.05)0.87 (0.71 to 1.08)0.88 (0.71 to 1.07)0.78 (0.63 to 0.98)0.06
648/16 162 (4.0)168/3251 (5.2)149/3406 (4.4)100/3102 (3.2)132/3220 (4.1)99/3183 (3.1)
 Model 4a1.000.95 (0.76 to 1.18)0.87 (0.67 to 1.12)0.94 (0.74 to 1.18)0.81 (0.62 to 1.05)0.14
 Model 4b1.000.95 (0.76 to 1.18)0.87 (0.67 to 1.11)0.94 (0.74 to 1.18)0.80 (0.62 to 1.05)0.14
  • Model 1 adjusted for sex and age.

  • Model 2 adjusted for sex, age, smoking, physical activity, energy intake and alcohol consumption.

  • Model 3: as model 2 and diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol.

  • Model 4a: as model 3, but restricted to number of participants for whom CRP is available (N=16 162).

  • Model 4b: as model 3 and CRP (N=16 162).CHD, coronary heart disease; CRP, C-reactive protein; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein.