Table 3

Observational studies

Author/publications
Year
DesignMean* or range† follow-up (months)Number of patientsArrhythmiasInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaAC treatmentEchocardiographyStroke eventsStroke Rate (95% CI)Mortality rate (95% CI)
Biblo et al39 2001Retrospective96*749 988Atrial flutter: 17 413
AF: 337 428
C: 395 147
>65 years
Atrial flutter/AF diagnose in 1984
Stroke
Development of atrial flutter in patients with AF
Development of atrial flutter/AF in C group
RR, 1.40 (1.35 to 1.46)
Corrado et al35 2001Prospective1*183Atrial flutter: 134Atrial flutter hospital admissionAF
Rheumatic mitral valve disease
Mechanical prosthesis
LT: 12
ST: 27
Thrombus: 2
SEC: 16
2
Vidaillet et al40 2002Retrospective0–87.6†Atrial flutter: 76
AF: 396
Atrial flutter+AF: 105
C: 577
Atrial flutter or AFLT: 1746 months: HR§, 1.7 (0.6 to 5.3)
12 months: HR§, 2.5 (0.2 to 8.3)
≥13 months: HR§, 1.9 (1.2 to 3.1)
Halligan et al41 2004Retrospective360*567Atrial flutter: 59
AF: 145
Atrial flutter
Controlled hypertension
AF
IHD
Hyperthyroidism
Valvular heart disease
Congestive heart failure
Congenital heart disease
Obstructive pulmonary disease
Uncontrolled hypertension
LT: 619HR, 2.6 (1.2 to 5.3)¶
HR, 1.9 (0.85 to 4.4)**§
Lelorier et al42 2004Prospective100.8*881Atrial flutter: –AF: –Atrial flutter
AF
Atrial flutter+AF
Life expectancy <1 year
HR, 0.78 (0.33 to 1.82)††HR, 0.71 (0.42 to 1.20)††
Scheuermeyer et al22 2011Retrospective12*122Atrial flutter: 122
Atrial flutter: +AF: 49
Atrial flutterAcute medical or surgical cause of arrhythmia
<7 days post ablation
39002.5% (0.0% to 5.1%)
  • *Mean follow-up. †Range follow-up. ‡Also reported in table 4.

  • §Adjusted for age, sex, heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, hypertension, previous stroke, IHD, rheumatic heart disease, smoking history, thyroid abnormality and diabetes mellitus.

  • ¶Age and sex adjusted, compared with patients with AF.

  • **Non hypertensive, compared with patients with AF.

  • ††Compared with AF and —, no information.

  • –, unreported; AC, anticoagulant treatment; AF, atrial fibrillation; C, control group; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; LT, long term; RR, risk ratio; SEC, spontaneous echo contrast; ST, short term.