Table 4

Echocardiography studies

TTETEE (%)
AuthorYearDesignMean follow-up (weeks)Number of patientsAtrial flutterAC treatmentThrombusSECThrombusSECEmbolic events (%)
Black et al251993Prospective
Referred to DCC
44070130
Santiago et al261994Prospective
Referred after TE
06117 (atrial flutter+AF: 14)0
4 (29%)
1 (6)
7 (50)
Feltes and Friedman271994Prospective
Referred to electrophysiology examination
019187 (38.8)5 (27.7)
Bikkina et al281995Prospective
Admission to hospital
0242405 (21)2 (8)
Grimm et al291997Prospective
Referred to DCC
463191380
Irani et al301997Prospective
Referred to DCC
44747None
Aspirin: 23
5 (10.6)11 (23.4)1*
Seidl et al311998Prospective
Referred to DCC/pacing or ablation
120191191 (atrial flutter+AF: 64)67
Aspirin: 73
2 (5)†7 (16)†13 (6.8)

Weiss et al321998Prospective
Referred to DCC
0303062 (7)
AC+: 0
7 (25)0
Roijer et al332000Retrospective
Referred to DCC
42424063 (7.5)75 (93.8)‡0
Elhendy et al§202001Retrospective
Referred to DCC
4493493 (atrial flutter+AF: 227)4156 (1.3%)2 (1.3)¶49 (28)¶3 (0.6)
AC+: 0
Schmidt et al342001Prospective
Referred to electrophysiology examination
4139139 (atrial flutter+AF: 69)492 (1%)56 (28)0
Corrado et al**352001Prospective
Referred to DCC1
413413412 (27)††3 (2.4)26 (20.9)2 (1.5)
Grönefeld et al362003Prospective
Referred to ablation
48201201 (atrial flutter+AF: 26)139 (69%)4 (6.5)
AC+: 0
14 (22.6)
AC+: 0
0
AC+: 2 (1)
Parikh et al372012Prospective
Referred to DCC or ablation
0373373 (atrial flutter+AF: 165)26924 (5.3)118 (25.9)0
Alyeshmerni et al382013Prospective
Referred to ablation
03473478511951 (15)0
  • *Patient suffered a cerebrovascular accident; —, undefined.

  • †Performed in 44 selected patients.

  • ‡Out of 80 patients with both AF and atrial flutter.

  • §Also reported in table 3.

  • ¶Out of 177 procedures.

  • **Also reported in table 5.

  • ††Short-term treatment, and —, no information.

  • AC, anticoagulant treatment; AF, atrial fibrillation; DCC, direct-current cardioversion; SEC, spontaneous echo contrast; TE, thromboembolic event; TEE, transesophageal echocardiography; TTE, transthoracic echocardiography.