Table 2

Remote ischaemic conditioning: overview of clinical studies on remote ischaemic conditioning in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI

StudyTreatmentNMain resultsRemarks
Bøtker et al17
Sloth et al18
5 min×4 upper-arm25136% relative increase in myocardial salvage index by SPECT at 30 days and in infarct size adjusted for area at risk. No difference in infarct size by SPECT. 4% increase in acute LVEF but no effect on final LVEF. No difference in ST-segment resolution or troponin T. Reduction in major cardiac events at 4 years (HR 0.49)142 with myocardial salvage and 219 with infarct size by SPECT. The effect seemed to be restricted to patients with TIMI 0/1 flow
Crimi et al195 min×3 lower-limb10020% reduction in AUC of CK-MB and oedema by CMR. No difference in infarct size by CMR, MVO, LVEF, myocardial blush or ST-segment resolutionOnly LAD, pre-PCI TIMI flow 0/1 and symptoms <6 h. 77 with CMR
White et al205 min×4 upper-arm8327% reduction in infarct size by CMR, 50% increase in myocardial salvage index (AAR measured by angiography), and 17% reduction in oedema by CMR. 16% reduction in peak troponin T.Only pre-PCI TIMI flow 0
  • AAR, area at risk; AUC, area under the curve; CK-MB, creatine kinase myoglobin band; CMR, cardiovascular magnetic resonance; LAD, left anterior descending artery; LVESV, LV end systolic volume; MVO, microvascular obstruction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; RCA, right coronary artery; SPECT, single-proton emission CT; STEMI, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; TIMI, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction.