Table 4

Summary of CMR and CT studies in children and adolescents with pulmonary hypertension and studies providing CMR reference values in a healthy population

ReferenceNo.PatientsAge (years) ParametersOutcome
 Blalock et al626IPAH2–16RVEDV, RVEF, LVEDV, LVSVAbnormal compared with controls, stable over 1 year
 Moledina et al7100IPAH, CHD, miscellaneous0.5–17.6RV and LV: EDV, ESV, SV, EF, MMCMR measures correlate with clinical status and prognosis (RVEF and LVSV)
 Pandya et al3650IPAH, CHD, LD0.45–16.5CMR-augmented cardiac catheterisation, real-time CMR sequence, septal curvature metricsSeptal curvature metrics are able to estimate RV afterload and track acute changes in pulmonary haemodynamics during vasodilator testing
 Moledina et al731CHD, IPAH, other0.7–19.1Fractal dimension of CT pulmonary angiogramsFractal dimension correlates with clinical status, haemodynamics and survival
Normal values CMR
 Robbers-Visser et al4160Healthy children and adolescents8–17RV and LV: EDV, ESV, MMGender-specific normative data for biventricular function, volume and mass
 Sarikouch et al4299Healthy children and adolescents8–20RV and LV: EDV, ESV, MMPercentiles for ventricular mass and volume in children aged 8–20 years
  • CHD, congenital heart disease; CMR, cardiac MR; EDV, end-diastolic volume; EF, ejection fraction; ESV, end-systolic volume; IPAH, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension; LD, lung disease; LV, left ventricle; MM, myocardial mass; No., number of patients; RV, right ventricle; SV, stroke volume; LVSV, left ventricular stroke volume.