Table 3

Characteristics of prospective studies of chocolate consumption and risk of IHD

ReferenceStudy name, countryStudy populationFollow-up (years)Number of casesCategory of chocolate intakeRR (95% CI)Adjustments
Mink et al7Iowa Women's Health Study, USA34 489 CVD-free postmenopausal women, 55–69 years161329 fatal IHD cases0
>0 serving/week
1.00 (reference)
0.98 (0.88 to 1.10)
Age, marital status, education, blood pressure, diabetes, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, physical activity, smoking, oestrogen use and energy intake
Janszky et al8Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, Sweden1169 non-diabetic men and women with MI, 45–70 years8250 recurrent non-fatal MI casesNever
<1 serving/month
1 serving/week
≥2 servings/week
1.00 (reference)
0.95 (0.61 to 1.49)
1.02 (0.68 to 1.55)
0.86 (0.54 to 1.37)
Age, sex, education, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, filtered coffee consumption and sweet score
Buijsse et al9EPIC-Potsdam, Germany19 357 CVD-free men and women not using antihypertensive medication, 35–65 years8.3166 non-fatal and fatal MI cases11.9 g/week
13.3 g/week
23.1 g/week
52.5 g/week
1.00 (reference)
0.65 (0.40 to 1.05)
1.02 (0.65 to 1.60)
0.73 (0.47 to 1.15)
Age, sex, employment status, education, smoking, BMI, waist circumference, prevalence of diabetes, occupational physical activity, sports, cycling and intakes of total energy, alcohol, coffee, tea, red meat, processed meat, dairy, fruits, vegetables and cereal fibre
Lewis et al10NA, Australia1216 women, NA9.5153 non-fatal and fatal IHD cases<1 serving/week
≥1 serving/week
1.00 (reference)
0.65 (0.46 to 0.94)
Age, socioeconomic status, BMI and energy intake
Kwok et al11EPIC-Norfolk, UK20 952 CVD-free men and women, mean age 59 years11.92434 non-fatal and fatal IHD cases0
4.2–24.5 g/week
28.7–49.9 g/week
50.4–108.5 g/week
≥109.2 g/week
1.00 (reference)
1.03 (0.91 to 1.15)
1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)
0.92 (0.81 to 1.05)
0.91 (0.80 to 1.04)
Age, sex, smoking, physical activity, BMI, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and intake of energy and alcohol
Larsson et al, 2016 (current study)Cohort of Swedish Men and Swedish Mammography Cohort, Sweden67 640 CVD-free men and women, 45–83 years134417 non-fatal and fatal MI cases0
1.00 (reference)
0.91 (0.84 to 0.99)
0.89 (0.81 to 0.97)
0.87 (0.77 to 0.98)
Age, sex, education, family history of MI, smoking status and pack-years of smoking, aspirin use, walking/bicycling, exercise, BMI, history of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia, intakes of total energy, alcohol, processed meat and fruits and vegetables
  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; MI, myocardial infarction; NA, not available; RR relative risk.