Table 1

Comparison of the main characteristics of the radiation-exposed population and the matched controls

VariablesRadiation group (n=26)Control group (n=26)p Value
Preprocedure
 Age (years)73.4 (61.3–83.6)73.3 (67.8–83.1)0.39
 Female gender13 (50)13 (50)1
 Body mass index (kg/m2)21.9 (18.7–24.9)27.6 (22.9–29.8)0.002
 Previous cardiac surgery6 (23)7 (27)0.02
 Coronary artery disease >50%14 (54)12 (46)1.0
 Previous cerebrovascular accident1 (4)2 (8)<0.001
 Extracardiac arteriopathy3 (12)1 (4)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation9 (35)10 (38)0.25
 Pacemaker4 (15)3 (12)<0.001
 Respiratory insufficiency13 (50)9 (35)0.15
 Dialysis02 (8)<0.001
 Cancer history26 (100)5 (19)0.06
 Hodgkin's disease11 (42)<0.001
 Time between last irradiation and TAVI (years)30.4 (14.0–40.2)
 Porcelain aorta2 (8)1 (4)0.001
 Active smoking1 (4)3 (12)<0.001
 Hypertension12 (46)22 (85)0.24
 Diabetes07 (27)0.001
 Insulin-treated diabetes02 (8)<0.001
 Dyslipidemia10 (38)14 (54)0.86
 NYHA III–IV classes21 (81)23 (88)0.001
 CCS class 41 (4)<0.001
 Syncope2 (8)1 (4)<0.001
 Congestive on admission14 (54)10 (38)0.83
 β-Blockers before TAVI16 (62)12 (46)0.83
 Systolic BP (mm Hg)120 (104–133)127 (116–142)0.32
 Diastolic BP (mm Hg)70 (60–79)70 (64–80)0.19
 Heart rate (bpm)85 (75–93)68 (60–82)0.02
 STS score (%)5.0 (2.9–6.1)4.7 (3.0–8.7)0.50
 EuroSCORE II (%)4.2 (2.1–7.9)5.0 (2.6–7.1)0.64
 EuroSCORE I (%)11.1 (5.7–19.4)16.0 (7.1–26.0)0.36
 Charlson comorbidity index4.5 (3.0–6.0)5.0 (3.5–8.0)0.51
 France 2 score3.0 (1.5–5.0)3.0 (2.0–3.5)0.15
 Creatinine clearance (mL/min)59.1 (33.1–85.7)59.9 (43.4–76.9)0.99
 C reactive protein level (mg/L)14.0 (2.7–25.4)11.8 (2.3–21.3)0.67
 Haemoglobin (g/dL)12.2 (10.9–13.0)12.4 (11.0–14.2)0.27
Transthoracic echocardiography
 Aortic valve area (cm²)0.69 (0.48–0.84)0.75 (0.57–0.85)0.99
 Aortic velocity peak (cm/s)442 (398–500)466 (428–510)0.27
 Mean aortic gradient (mm Hg)47 (41–57)52 (46–65)0.20
 LVEF (%)60 (45–60)60 (45–60)0.87
 Systolic PAP (mm Hg)41 (32–58)44 (33–49)0.18
 Mitral regurgitation ≥2/44 (15)2 (8)<0.001
 Bicuspid aortic valve3 (12)<0.001
Procedure
 Transapical access4 (15)4 (15)0.01
 Edwards SAPIEN Valve18 (69)19 (73)0.03
Day 7 transthoracic echocardiography
 Paraprosthetic AR ≥2/42 (8)1 (4)<0.001
 Mitral regurgitation ≥2/42 (8)4 (15)0.002
 LVEF (%)60 (50–60)60 (45–60)0.90
 Aortic velocity peak (cm/s)215 (182–237)223 (208–236)0.34
 Mean aortic gradient (mm Hg)10 (7–12)11 (10–12)0.25
 Systolic PAP (mm Hg)42 (35–47)40 (30–53)0.34
  • Data are presented as median (25–75th percentiles) or n (%).

  • AR, aortic regurgitation; BP, blood pressure; EuroSCORE, European System of Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation; LVEF, left ventricle ejection fraction; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PAP, pulmonary arterial pressure; STS, Society of Thoracic Surgeons; TAVI, trans-catheter aortic valve implantation.