Table 2

Regression between e′ at 60–64 years and SBP and antihypertensive treatment at four time points with further adjustment for covariables

 Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Independent variableβ (95% CI)p Valueβ (95% CI)p Valueβ (95% CI)p Valueβ (95% CI)p Valueβ (95% CI)p Value
Age 36 (n=1533)SBP−0.006 (−0.014 to 0.002)0.125−0.006 (−0.014 to 0.002)0.122−0.001 (−0.009 to 0.007)0.855−0.002 (−0.010 to 0.006)0.6190.000 (−0.008 to 0.008)0.931
Age 43 (n=1533)SBP−0.006 (−0.013 to 0.002)0.128−0.005 (−0.012 to 0.002)0.1710.002 (−0.067 to 0.010)0.5980.001 (−0.007 to 0.008)0.8160.000 (−0.009 to 0.008)0.959
Age 53 (n=1533)SBP−0.011 (−0.017 to −0.006)<0.001−0.010 (−0.016 to −0.005)<0.001−0.005 (−0.011 to 0.001)0.084−0.004 (−0.010 to 0.002)0.157−0.002 (−0.006 to 0.009)0.694
Age 60–64 (n=1533)SBP−0.017 (−0.022 to −0.012)<0.001−0.017 (−0.022 to −0.011)<0.001NRNR−0.015 (−0.020 to −0.009)<0.001−0.014 (−0.019 to −0.008)<0.001
Age 36HTTNRNR0.112 (−0.846 to 1.070)0.8190.018 (−0.937 to 0.973)0.9710.039 (−0.910 to 0.989)0.935−0.110 (−1.157 to 0.937)0.837
Age 43HTTNRNR−0.619 (−1.296 to 0.058)0.073−0.598 (−1.271 to 0.075)0.081−0.495 (−1.163 to 0.173)0.146−0.403 (−1.064 to 0.257)0.231
Age 53HTTNRNR−0.333 (−0.635 to− 0.032)0.030−0.331 (−0.630 to −0.032)0.030−0.296 (−0.598 to 0.006)0.054−0.230 (−0.533 to 0.073)0.136
Age 60–64HTTNRNR−0.253 (−0.490 to −0.016)0.036NRNR−0.162 (−0.407 to 0.082)0.192−0.094 (−0.340 to 0.152)0.453
  • Imputed (n=1533 for all models—with valid outcome and SBP at age 60–64 years). The variable β is regression coefficient for e′ versus SBP (mm Hg) or antihypertensive treatment (HTT). Model 1: adjusted for age sex and CRF attended. Model 2: model 1+antihypertensive treatment (HTT) at given age (for SBP) or model 1+SBP at given age (for HTT). Model 3: model 2+SBP at 60–64 years. Model 4: model 3+T2DM+BMI+smoking status+physical activity status. Model 5: model 4+left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area. Numbers of individuals receiving HTT were 51 (2%), 107 (3%), 438 (15%) and 640 (27%) at age 36, 43, 53 and 60–64 years, respectively.

  • BMI, body mass index; CRF, clinical research facility; NR, not relevant; SBP, systolic blood pressure; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.