Table 1

Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes in women with mechanical heart valves according to the type of anticoagulation therapy used during pregnancy.

Anticoagulation regimen
Adverse outcomesOAOA/HHeparin
Maternal mortality1.1 (0.5 to 2.2)1.7 (0.8 to 4.5)4.7 (2.2 to 10.7)
TECs including PVT2.9 (1.9 to 4.1)7.1 (4.7 to 10.3)13.4 (9.7 to 20.5)
Maternal bleeding4.2 (1.4 to 6.8)3.4 (2.3 to 6.6)10.8 (2.8 to 27.3)
Fetal wastage—any cause32.9 (25.7 to 49.2)19.9 (15.9 to 31.4)38.8 (32 to 46.8)
Embryopathy/congenital malformations3.7 (1.9 to 4.8)0.4 (0.2 to 2.7)0
Prematurity7.4 (2.1 to 9.6)8.1 (3.4 to 12.8)9.5 (3 to 23.6)
  • Adapted from Hassouna and Allam.18

  • Values are presented as a percentage and (95% CIs).

  • OA, oral anticoagulants alone throughout pregnancy; OA/H, oral anticoagulants substituted by heparin during the first trimester; Heparin, heparin alone throughout pregnancy; PVT, prosthetic valve thrombosis; TECs, thromboembolic complications.