Table 4

Estimated lifetime risk of radiation induced cancer incidence (all sites combined, risks rounded to the nearest hundred) presented in the form 1 in x, for both normal and reduced life expectancy

ProcedureNormal life expectancy Survival to 50 years
1 in:1 in:1 in:1 in:
ASD occlusion6600210050 00014 300
PDA occlusion300070025 0004300
Pulmonary valvuloplasty190070012 5004500
Aortic valvuloplasty220050014 3003000
PA balloon/stent120030091001900
Coarctation balloon/stent180040012 5002700
EPS/RFA4200210033 00020 000
Heart biopsy20 0006700100 00050 000
Coronary angiography3700160025 00016 700
Valve replacement60015053001000
Pacemaker procedure8300450050 00033 000
Atrial septostomy380090025 0005900
  • Figures are based on typical organ doses in UK practice, based on kerma area product levels given in table 1.

  • ASD, atrial septal defect; EPS, electrophysiology study; PA, pulmonary artery; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; RFA, radiofrequency ablation.