Table 2

Changes (mean change or change in proportion followed by 95% CI) in lifestyle, medical risk factors, cardioprotective medication and patient-reported outcome measures in cardiovascular patients between the IA, EOP and 1-year assessments

IA (n=549) EOP (n=549) Change IA (n=231) 1 year (n=231) Change
Current smoking (%)9.3%7.8%−1.5% (−3.5%, 0.5%); p=0.168.8%8.3%−0.4% (−3.7%, 2.9%); p=1.00
Fruit and vegetable: ≥5 portions/day (%)35.6%47.9%12.2% (7.7%, 16.8%); p<0.00134.2%45.8%11.6% (4.2%, 18.9%); p=0.002
Fish: >20 g/day (%)75.2%84.4%9.1% (5.2%, 13.1%); p<0.00175.7%83.6%8.0% (1.7%, 14.2%); p=0.01
Mediterranean Diet Score mean (SD)7.5 (2.2)8.5 (1.9)1.0 (0.9, 1.1); p<0.0017.2 (2.3)8.3 (2.0)1.2 (0.9, 1.4); p<0.001
Physical activity: ≥5 times/week, ≥30 min (%)17.0%56.8%39.8% (34.5%, 45.0%); p<0.00116.1%47.9%31.7% (24.2%, 39.3%); p<0.001
Estimated METs maximum mean (SD)7.6 (2.0)8.5 (2.2)0.9 (0.8, 1.1); p<0.0017.6 (1.8)8.5 (2.0)0.9 (0.7, 1.2); p<0.001
Weight† kg mean (SD)84.0 (14.0)83.8 (13.7)−0.2 (−0.6, 0.1); p=0.4384.4 (14.6)84.1 (14.3)−0.3 (−1.0, 0.3); p=0.35
Waist circumference, cm mean (SD)97.0 (12.4)96.4 (11.9)−0.6 (−0.9,–0.3); p<0.00198.8 (10.9)97.9 (10.8)−0.8 (−1.6,–0.1); p=0.03
BP <140/90 mm Hg (%)70.3%85.6%15.4% (11.0%, 19.7%); p<0.00169.9%79.0%9.2% (2.2%, 16.2%); p=0.01
Total cholesterol <4 mmol/L (%)58.1%64.5%6.4% (1.9%, 10.9%); p=0.00558.8%57.3%−1.5% (−8.8%, 5.7%); p=0.77
LDL-cholesterol <2 mmol/L (%)48.2%54.5%6.3% (2.0%, 10.6%); p<0.00449.5%49.0%0.5% (−8.3%, 7.3%); p=1.00
HbA1cmmol/mol mean (SD)*56.6 (15.0)57.0 (14.1)0.4 (−2.8, 3.6); p=0.8153.7 (15.4)56.6 (13.5)2.9 (−3.2, 9.0); p=0.16
Antiplatelet therapy (%)91.8%91.6%−0.2% (−1.7%, 1.3%); p=1.0092.1%89.1%−3.1% (−6.6%, 0.4%); p=0.09
Statins (%)90.2%92.2%2.0% (−0.2%, 4.2%); p=0.0892.2%94.4%2.2% (−1.5%, 5.9%); p=0.30
ACE inhibitors/ARBs (%)69.7%76.2%6.5% (3.3%, 9.6%); p<0.00171.2%73.8%2.6% (−2.0%, 7.2%); p=0.31
Beta blockers (%)71.3%68.7%−2.6% (−5.2%, 0.0%); p=0.0572.9%70.3%−2.6% (−7.1%, 1.8%); p=0.29
Calcium channel blockers (%)18.2%21.9%3.7% (1.2%, 6.2%); p=0.00217.9%17.5%−0.4% (−4.4%, 3.5%); p=1.00
Diuretics (%)22.0%20.7%−1.3% (−3.9%, 1.3%); p=0.3620.5%19.7%−0.9% (−5.3%, 3.6%); p=0.83
HADS–Anxiety median (IQR)5 (2, 8)5 (2, 8)0 (0, 0); p=0.555 (2, 9)5 (2, 7)−1 (−1, 0); p=0.06
% HADS–Anxiety >827.826.3−1.5% (−8.4%, 5.3%); p=0.7630.419.6−10.7% (−19.9%, −1.5%); p=0.02
HADS–Depression median (IQR)3 (2, 7)2 (1, 6)−1 (−1, 0); p<0.0014 (2, 7)3 (1, 6)−1 (−1, 0); p=0.002
% HADS–Depression >823.211.6−11.6% (−17.7%, −5.5%); p<0.00124.116.1−8.0% (−17.2%,  1.1%); p=0.09
EQ-VAS (IQR)65 (50, 77)73 (60, 85)5 (0, 10); p<0.00160 (50, 80)75 (60, 80)10 (0, 10); p<0.001
Dartmouth COOP median (IQR)22 (17, 27)19 (15, 24)−2 (−2,  –1); p<0.00123 (17, 27)21 (17, 25)−1 (−3, 0); p=0.008
  • *In those with known diabetes or newly diagnosed diabetes at the IA.

  • †In those with BMI >25 kg/m2 at IA

  • ARBs, angiotensin receptor blockers; BMI, body mass index; EOP, end of programme; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IA, initial assessment; EQ-VAS, Euroqol Visual Analogue Scale.