Table 1

Time-trend studies examining the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis guideline change on the incidence of IE

First author, year PMIDPaper/abstractRegion, countryPopulationDiagnosisStudy time periodGuideline change
Level of AP restriction
Increased incidence after guideline changeIncrease in rate of change of incidence after  guidelineGuideline time point identified by change point analysis?
Bates, 201631 27418041PaperUSAChildren ≤18 years identified from Pediatric Health Information System Database (29 hospitals)All cases— acute and subacute bacterial IE2003–2014AHA/ACC
April 2007
relative restriction
NoNoNA
Bikdeli, 201332 23994421PaperUSAAdults≥65 yearsAll cases— principal or secondary discharge dx of IE1999–2010AHA/ACC
April 2007
relative restriction
NoNANA
Dayer, 201519
and
Thornhill, 201133 *
25467569PaperEngland, UKAllAll cases— primary dx acute or subacute IE1 January 2000–31 March 2013NICE March 2008
total restriction
YesYesYes
DeSimone, 201520
and
De Simone, 201234 *
26141329PaperOlmsted County, Minnesota, USAAdults≥18 yearsVGS IE1 January 1999 to 31 December 2013AHA/ACC April 2007
relative restriction
NoNANA
Duval, 201235 22624837PaperThree regions of France (Greater Paris, Lorraine and Rhône-Alpes)Adults≥20 yearsAll cases of IE and subgroups by causative organismThree survey years—1991, 1999, 2008French guideline restrictions 2002
relative restriction
NoNANA
Keller, 201630 27816113PaperGermanyAll patients hospitalised with acute or subacute IEIE due to Streptococcus and Staphylococcus (reported separately)2005–2014ESC
October 2009
relative restriction
YesYesNo
Mackie, 201636 26868840PaperCanada (except Quebec and the Northern Territories)All patients hospitalised with acute or subacute IE as main diagnosisAll hospitalisations with primary dx of IEApril 2002 - March 2013AHA/ACC April 2007
relative restriction
Total IE increase, decrease in VGSYesNo
Pant, 201517 25975469PaperUSAPatients in nationwide inpatient sample with ICD codes for IEAll cases of IE and subgroups by causative organism2000–2011AHA/ACC April 2007
relative restriction
YesYesNot performed
Salam, 201437 NAAbstractQatarAll patients hospitalised with IE in State of QatarAll cases2002–2012AHA/ACC April 2007
relative restriction
NoNANA
van den Brink, 201618 PendingPaperThe NetherlandsAll patients identified from the national healthcare insurance databaseAll cases of IE2005–2011ESC
October 2009
relative restriction
Yes, significant increase in VGSYesNA
  • *Earlier publications from same research group using same methodology. Study with longer follow-up used for analysis.

  • AHA/ACC, American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology; dx, diagnosis; ESC, European Society for Cardiology; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; IE,  infective endocarditis; NICE, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ;VGS. Viridans group streptotocci.