Table 2

Race–ethnicity-specific association of tertiles of HGF and CVD risk factors

African-AmericanChinese AmericanHispanic AmericanNon-Hispanic white American
CharacteristicsTertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3p ValueTertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3p ValueTertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3p ValueTertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3p Value
HGF range (pg/mL)342.6–813.9814.3–999.61000.0–2151.8292.4–738.3738.3–892.1892.4–2135.9317.7–903.2903.7–1112.91113.4–2094.1313.6–783.5783.6–993.1993.2–2117.0
Age, years59.1 (9.3)62.3 (9.9)65.0 (10.0)<0.00157.9 (9.5)62.6 (9.3)66.6 (10.3)<0.00158.0 (9.4)61.3 (9.9)64.3 (10.7)<0.00159.3 (9.5)62.6 (10.1)65.9 (10.1)<0.001
Sex, % female5061550.395248540.644952550.08475257<0.001
BMI, kg/m2 29.3 (5.3)30.4 (5.9)30.7 (6.2)<0.00123.2 (2.9)24.2 (3.3)24.5 (3.6)<0.00128.2 (4.5)29.2 (4.6)30.9 (5.7)<0.00126.4 (4.3)27.6 (4.9)29.2 (5.5)<0.001
Education
 ≤11th grade
 High school graduate
 Some college
 Bachelor’s degree
 Graduate/professional school
9
16
35
21
20
11
19
34
19
17
15
23
36
13
13
<0.00116
12
25
28
20
26
18
16
22
18
33
19
19
18
11
<0.00139
21
30
5
6
50
18
22
7
4
46
23
24
5
3
0.333
14
23
27
33
5
15
29
23
29
7
22
33
17
20
<0.001
Income
 < $25 000
 $25 000–$50 000
 $50 000–$100 000
 ≥ $100 000
22
31
37
10
32
32
27
9
37
34
23
6
0.00241
22
24
13
49
21
19
11
60
23
12
6
0.0844
35
19
3
50
33
15
3
55
31
12
2
0.1011
23
33
33
14
26
35
25
23
32
30
15
<0.001
SBP, mm Hg128.4 (20.0)131.6 (22.2)135.2 (22.1)0.01118.6 (18.8)125.6 (21.7)129.8 (22.7)0.02121.0 (19.4)126.9 (21.2)131.8 (23.2)<0.001119.3 (18.7)122.7 (19.9)128.4 (21.7)<0.001
Hypertension, % yes495970<0.0012538490.001304153<0.001293650<0.001
Diabetes mellitus, % yes111724<0.00161320<0.00181925<0.0012511<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL190.0 (35.6)192.8 (36.8)186.0 (35.6)<0.001194.0 (32.8)190.1 (32.0)194.1 (30.5)0.47202.4 (38.0)200.9 (37.9)191.6 (35.5)<0.001195.3 (33.3)197.3 (36.1)194.9 (35.8)0.31
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL54.1 (15.4)52.3 (15.4)50.8 (14.7)<0.00151.3 (13.7)49.1 (11.8)48.1 (12.3)<0.00149.2 (13.9)47.4 (12.9)46.4 (12.2)<0.00154.2 (16.7)52.2 (15.4)50.4 (14.7)<0.001
Triglycerides, mg/dL97.2 (75.2)107.3 (70.3)109.9 (59.5)<0.001133.0 (83.7)135.3 (72.2)160.5 (94.9)<0.001155.6 (111.6)162.4 (109.2)154.5 (80.9)0.82117.8 (69.4)133.6 (105.1)147.3 (90.6)<0.001
Creatine, mg/dL1.0 (0.2)1.0 (0.2)1.0 (0.3)<0.0010.9 (0.2)0.9 (0.2)0.9 (0.3)0.030.9 (0.2)0.9 (0.2)0.9 (0.4)0.680.9 (0.2)1.0 (0.2)1.0 (0.2)<0.001
GFR88.4 (17.0)85.9 (18.5)84.8 (21.7)0.4385.2 (14.1)83.0 (16.4)78.7 (18.5)0.383.6 (15.8)83.9 (17.4)82.7 (21.0)0.00578.3 (20.4)75.6 (13.8)73.8 (15.9)0.15
Current smoker, % yes131723<0.001368<0.00191418<0.00181115<0.001
Current use of alcohol, % yes5251460.583432280.455149430.56767366<0.001
Antilipidemic therapy, % yes1516190.91914200.021213140.221518220.008
Statin use, % yes1415180.89912170.41112130.251416200.05
Hypertension medication use, % yes404962<0.001182840<0.001243142<0.001243342<0.001
Calcium channel blockers, % yes1817280.005510140.0399140.0366110.01
Angiotensin type 2 antagonists4350.363490.071340.022240.1
Aspirin use, % yes2930330.511021240.032326300.613541420.55
Diabetes medication use, % yes8074830.316779720.856684820.124770750.26
Diuretic use, % yes1821260.172560.00458120.00471221<0.001
Females only
 Hormone replacement therapy, % yes5545400.0044431280.094541340.76686957<0.001
 Postmenopause, % yes8285870.657885940.558290900.957985900.33
  • p Values from a linear regression model adjusted for age and sex.

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoproteins; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; SBP, systolic blood pressure.