Table 1

Baseline characteristics by race/ethnicity for those with HGF measured at examination 1 (mean±SD or percentage)

CharacteristicsAfrican-AmericanChinese AmericanHispanic AmericanNon-Hispanic white Americanp Value
N186179914772604
HGF, pg/mL934.4 (249.8)839.4 (216.1)1035.9 (268.7)915.8 (255.1)<0.001
Age, years62.1 (10.0)62.4 (10.3)61.2 (10.3)62.6 (10.2)<0.001
Sex, % female565152520.058
BMI, kg/m2 30.2 (5.8)24.0 (3.3)29.4 (5.1)27.7 (5.1)<0.001
Education
 ≤11th grade1225455
 High school graduate19162017
 Some college35202528<0.001
 Bachelor’s degree1723622
 Graduate/professional school1716428
Income ­ ­ ­ ­<0.001
 < $25 00030504916
 $25 000–$50 00032223327
 $50 000–$100 00029181533
 ≥ $100 000810225
SBP, mm Hg131.7 (21.6)124.6 (21.6)126.5 (21.8)123.5 (20.4)<0.001
DBP, mm Hg74.5 (10.2)72.0 (10.4)71.5 (10.1)70.2 (10.0)<0.001
Hypertension, % yes59384138<0.001
Blood pressure status<0.001
 Normotensive <120 mm Hg, % yes41635962
 Hypertensive (controlled), % yes48263028
 Hypertensive (uncontrolled), % yes12121211
Diabetes mellitus, % yes17.512.917.36<0.001
Laboratory values
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL189.6 (36.1)192.7 (31.8)198.3 (37.5)195.8 (35.1)<0.001
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dL52.4 (15.2)49.5 (12.7)47.7 (13.1)52.3 (15.7)<0.001
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dL116.5 (32.9)115.2 (29.0)119.8 (32.9)117.1 (30.1)0.003
 Triglycerides, mg/dL104.8 (68.8)142.9 (84.9)157.5 (101.5)132.9 (90.4)<0.001
Creatine, mg/dL1.0 (0.3)0.9 (0.2)0.9 (0.3)1.0 (0.2)<0.001
GFR86.4 (19.2)82.3 (16.6)83.4 (18.2)75.9 (17.0)<0.001
Lifestyle factors
 Smoking status<0.001
  Never, % yes45755444
  Former, % yes37193244
  Current, % yes1861411
 Current use of alcohol, % yes50314772<0.001
Current medication use
Antilipidemic therapy, % yes16141318<0.001
Statin use, % yes15131217<0.001
Hypertension medication use, % yes50293233<0.001
Calcium channel blockers, % yes2110118<0.001
Inhibitors of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, % yes0.20.10.30.30.6
Angiotensin type 2 antagonists45330.003
Aspirin use, % yes31182640<0.001
Diabetes medication use,
% yes (patients with diabetes only)
797480700.073
Diuretic use, % yes224813<0.001
Hormone replacement therapy % yes
(females only)
46344064<0.001
Subclinical and clinical disease
 CAC>0, % yes43504557<0.001
 CAC categories<0.001
  <50, %76717463
  50–149, %10141111
  150–399, %79712
  >400, %86813
 Common carotid IMT, mm0.9 (0.2)0.8 (0.2)0.9 (0.2)0.9 (0.2)<0.001
 Internal carotid IMT, mm1.1 (0.6)0.9 (0.5)1.0 (0.6)1.1 (0.6)<0.001
 Presence of plaque, % yes44263947<0.001
  • p Value from linear regression model for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables comparing variables across ethnic groups.

  • BMI, body mass index; CAC, coronary artery calcium; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IMT, intima-media thickness;HGF, LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood presssure.