Table 3

Association of HGF and subclinical and clinical atherosclerotic disease

Pooled sampleRace/ethnicity interaction
p Value
African-AmericanChinese AmericanHispanic AmericanNon-Hispanic white American
*Beta (SE)p ValueBeta (SE)p ValueBeta (SE)p ValueBeta (SE)p ValueBeta (SE)p Value
CAC, Agatston score
 Model 165 (8)<0.0010.03171 (18)<0.00131 (19)0.09738 (19)0.04486 (13)<0.001
 Model 237 (8.9)<0.0010.02251 (19)0.007−2.5 (19)0.9017 (20)0.3955 (14)<0.001
CAC>0, Agatston score
 Model 137 (9)<0.0010.04162 (20)0.002−3 (19)0.8714 (21)0.5046 (13)<0.001
 Model 223 (10)0.0160.02853 (21)0.011−24 (19)0.2211 (22)0.6233 (15)0.025
Common carotid IMT, mm
 Model 10.009 (0.002)<0.0010.530.007 (0.004)0.130.015 (0.007)0.0420.008 (0.004)0.0690.01 (0.004)0.005
 Model 2−0.001 (0.002)0.810.740.002 (0.005)0.620.001 (0.007)0.88−0.009 (0.005)0.84−0.004 (0.004)0.28
Internal carotid IMT, mm
 Model 10.06 (0.007)<0.001<0.0010.036 (0.015)0.0150.05 (0.02)0.0140.03 (0.014)0.0350.098 (0.012)<0.001
 Model 20.036 (0.008)<0.001<0.0010.014 (0.015)0.350.029 (0.021)0.180.008 (0.015)0.600.071 (0.013)<0.001
OR (95% CI) p Value OR (95% CI) p Value OR (95% CI) p Value OR (95% CI) p Value OR (95% CI) p Value
Presence of plaque
 Model 11.19 (1.13 to 1.26)<0.0010.351.11 (1.0 to 1.24)0.0451.21 (0.99 to 1.48)0.0701.18 (1.06 to 1.32)0.0041.26 (1.15 to 1.38)<0.001
 Model 21.10 (1.04 to 1.17)0.0020.371.04 (0.93 to 1.16)0.521.10 (0.89 to 1.37)0.381.12 (0.99 to 1.27)0.0641.14 (1.04 to 1.26)0.007
Any CAC, Agatston score
 Model 11.24 (1.16 to 1.31)<0.0010.0521.15 (1.03 to 1.28)0.0121.31 (1.07 to 1.60)0.0091.14 (1.01 to 1.28)0.0291.39 (1.26 to 1.53)<0.001
 Model 21.12 (1.05 to 1.19)<0.0010.111.07 (0.96 to 1.20)0.221.13 (0.92 to 1.39)0.251.05 (0.93 to 1.20)0.431.23 (1.10 to 1.36)<0.001
Number of CHD events52913448109238
Total person-years72 83319 552880515 70928 767
Crude CHD rate, per 1000 person-years7.36.95.56.98.3
HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value
Time to CHD
 Model 11.30 (1.20 to 1.41)<0.0010.241.47 (1.27 to 1.71)<0.0011.32 (0.98 to 1.77)0.0671.13 (0.95 to 1.35)0.171.30 (1.15 to 1.47)<0.001
 Model 21.20 (1.10 to 1.31)<0.0010.181.41 (1.20 to 1.66)<0.0011.17 (0.84 to 1.62)0.361.06 (0.87 to 1.28)0.561.17 (1.02 to 1.33)0.026
  • Results are reported per SD increase in HGF (SD=259 pg/mL).

  • Model 1 = age and sex (+ race/ethnicity in pooled analyses).

  • Model 2 = age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking and diabetes status (+ race/ethnicity in pooled analyses).

  • CAC, coronary artery calcium; CHD, coronary heart disease; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IMT, intima-media thickness.