Table 1

Epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and echocardiographic characteristics in the derivation cohort

Discharged alive
(n=300)
Deaths
(n=124)
p Value
Age (years)6114 6513 0.003
>7093 (31%)55 (44.4%) 0.010
Male gender208 (69%)81 (65%)0.432
Nosocomial acquisition69 (23%)36 (29%) 0.04
Antibiotic prophylaxis29 (9.7%)10 (8.1%)0.351
Comorbidity
 Diabetes57 (19%)27 (21.8%)0.665
 Chronic anaemia40 (13.3%)30 (24.2%) 0.009
 Chronic renal failure26 (8.7%)16 (12.9%)0.121
 Malignant neoplasia21 (7%)13 (10.5%)0.402
 COPD13 (4.3%)16 (12.9%) 0.005
Echocardiographic features
 Prosthetic left sided107 (35.7%)58 (46.8%) <0.001
 Multivalvular75 (25%)28 (22.6%)0.624
 Vegetation detection232 (77.3%)108 (87.1%) 0.043
 Vegetation size (mm)14.1 (6.7)14.9 (9.6)0.462
 Periannular complications84 (28%)47 (37.9%) 0.061
 Pulmonary hypertension
 (moderate–severe)
86 (28.7%)42 (33.9%)0.282
 LVEF (%)60.3 (13.5)60.7 (12.5)0.760
 LVEF<35%9 (4.2%)4 (5.4%)0.891
Causative microorganism
Streptococcus bovis 15 (5%)3 (2.4%)0.291
Viridans group streptococci42 (14%)13 (10.5%)0.420
 Enterococci29 (9.7%)13 (10.5%)0.852
Staphylococcus aureus 47 (15.7%)27 (21.8%)0.161
 Coagulase-negative staphylococci47 (15.7%)17 (13.7%)0.660
 Gram-negative bacilli6 (2%)5 (4%)0.310
 Fungi2 (0.7%)5 (4%) 0.020
 Anaerobes11 (5%)1 (0.8%)0.191
 Polimicrobial27 (9%)12 (9.7%)0.855
 Negative cultures40 (13.3%)17 (13.7%)0.999
 Positive blood cultures
 (48–72 hours after antibiotic initiation)
36 (12%)27 (21.7%) 0.007
Clinical events prior to surgery
 Systemic embolisms85 (28.3%)34 (27.4%)0.910
 CNS embolisms55 (18.3%)26 (21%)0.593
 Heart failure180 (60%)90 (72.6%) 0.020
 Cardiogenic shock42 (14%)34 (29.8%) <0.001
 Acute renal failure86 (28.7%)56 (46.8%) <0.001
 Septic shock18 (6%)27 (21.8%) <0.001
 Thrombocytopaenia (<1 50 000/mm3)77 (26.6%)47 (39.5%) 0.014
 Urgent surgery142 (47.3%)75 (60.5%) 0.013
  • Values are n (%) or mean (SD). Bold values are significant.

  • CNS, central nervous system; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVEF, left ventricle ejection fraction.