Table 1

Clinical, biochemical and echocardiographical characteristics of women and men grouped according to aortic valve calcification (AVC) severity at baseline

Women (N=664)Men (N=1061)
None/mild AVC(n=247)Moderate/severe AVC(n=417)None/mild AVC(n=322)Moderate/severe AVC(n=739)
Age (years)68.2±9.4*69.9±9.3*†65.3±9.866.6±9.5†
Body mass index (kg/m²)27.5±5.426.5±5.1†27.1±3.626.8±3.9
Hypertension89%‡88%‡79%81%
Antihypertensive treatment (%)
Calcium antagonists36313632
ACE inhibitors32273532
Angiotensin receptor blockers21211918
Diuretics52§523546
Beta-blockers43423739
No of antihypertensive agents1.4§1.3§ 1.11.2
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)150±20‡151±21*145±19143±19
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)81±1082±1082±1082±10
Heart rate (beats/min)69±11*68±11*65±1264±11
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.0±1.0*6.0±1.1*5.6±0.95.5±1.0
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.7±0.93.7±1.0*3.6±0.83.5±0.9
Creatine (µmol/L)84±13*85±14*98±1499±15
hs-CRP (mg/dL)0.26 (0.10–0.49)0.24 (0.10–0.48)0.18 (0.08–0.31)0.20 (0.08–0.44)§
Peak aortic jet velocity (m/s)2.64±0.343.33±0.46†2.62±0.363.32±0.49†
Mean transvalvular gradient (mm Hg)16±427±8†16±526±9
Aortic valve area (cm²)1.28±0.38*1.02±0.32*¶1.64±0.551.27±0.43†
Aortic valve area index (cm²/m²)0.72±0.21*0.59±0.19**0.82±0.280.64±0.21†
Energy loss index (cm²/m²)1.06±0.540.77±0.33‡¶1.13±0.570.83±0.42†
Ejection fraction (%)67±666±767±766±7†
scMWS (%)102±19§99±20†‡98±1994±19**
LV mass index (g/m2.7)41.9±12.4‡44.2±14.0§*45.3±15.747.9±14.7†
Stroke volume/pulse pressure (mL/mm Hg)3.25±1.51*3.07±1.34*4.54±2.174.21±2.00†
Mitral regurgitation64%70%*55%54%
Aortic regurgitation65%‡72%‡82%84%
  • *p<0.001, **p<0.01, †p<0.05 between groups with none/mild versus moderate/severe AVC within same sex, ‡p<0.01, §p<0.05 between sexes, ¶p<0.001 .

  • hs-CRP, high-sensitive C reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipid; LV, left ventricular; scMWS, stress-corrected midwall shortening.