Table 2

Health-related quality of life in moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease: a linear regression model derived from Study of Heart and Renal Protection data

Participant’s characteristicsEffect on quality of life, as measured by EQ-5D utility (95% CI)
Intercept*0.86 (0.84 to 0.88)
SexMale0.06 (0.05 to 0.07)
Ethnicity/country
(ref: white)
Asian (China)0.02 (−0.01 to 0.04)
Asian (other country)0.06 (0.04 to 0.08)
Black−0.04 (−0.08 to −0.01)
Other−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.01)
Smoker
(ref: never)
Former−0.01 (−0.02 to 0.00)
Current−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02)
Education level
(ref: A-levels or above)
Secondary/vocational−0.02 (−0.03 to 0.00)
Below secondary−0.04 (−0.05 to −0.02)
Missing−0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01)
BMI, kg/m2
(ref:≥25,<30)
<250.01 (0.00 to 0.02)
≥30−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.03)
Previous failed kidney transplantYes−0.07 (−0.11 to −0.03)
Diabetic nephropathyYes−0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04)
Participant’s characteristics during the study
Age (centred at 60 years)Per 10 years older−0.05 (−0.05 to −0.04)
Previous (most recent) MVE (ref: no MVE within trial, no baseline vascular disease)No MVE within trial, with baseline vascular disease−0.07 (−0.09 to −0.05)
MVE within trial, last year−0.17 (−0.21 to −0.14)
MVE within trial,>1 years ago−0.10 (−0.13 to −0.08)
Being on dialysisYes−0.06 (−0.07 to −0.04)
  • *The intercept term corresponds to the quality of life (ie, EQ-5D utility) of a 60-year-old white female with CKD but not on dialysis, non-smoker, with education level of A-levels or above (or equivalent), BMI ≥25 <30 kg/m2, without previously failed transplant, without diabetic nephropathy and without history of vascular disease.

  • BMI, body mass index; MVE, major vascular event.