Table 1

Patient characteristics for the whole cohort, and for patients with surgery versus patients without surgery during the follow-up

All patients (n=79)Patients with surgery* (n=31)Patients without surgery (n=48)p Value†
Clinical status
 Age at CMR, years37.1±15.135.1±15.538.3±15.00.361
 Male gender, n (%)36 (46)13 (42)23 (48)0.602
 Body surface area, m2 1.68±0.121.68±0.121.69±0.120.630
 NYHA functional class 1/2/3, n (%)30 (38)/39 (49)/10 (13)4 (13)/24 (77)/3 (10)26 (54)/15 (31)/7  (15) <0.001
 Atrial septal defect/patent foramen ovale, n (%)25 (32)/24 (30)15 (48)/12 (39)10 (21)/12 (25) <0.001
 Sinus rhythm, n (%)‡73 (92)29 (94)40 (83)0.363
 QRS duration, ms130.4±26.1140.9±24.5120.5±24.0 0.002
 QRS fractionation, n (%)32 (49)23 (72)9 (27) <0.001
 Accessory pathway, n (%)12 (15)4 (13)8 (17) 0.649
 Oxygen saturations at rest in room air (%)97 (96–98)96 (94–98)98 (96–98) 0.023
 Previously documented arrhythmia, n (%)19 (24)7 (23)12 (25)0.806
  AVRT (WPW)/AT/paroxysmal AF, n (%)11 (14)/5 (6)/3 (4)3 (10)/4 (13)/0 (0)8 (17)/1 (2)/3 (6)
 LV non-compaction, n (%)§15 (19)12 (39)3 (6)0.090
 Cardiothoracic ratio (n=71)0.57±0.080.58±0.040.56±0.090.463
 Brain natriuretic peptide, pmol/L (n=50)10.5 (5.8–20.8)15.0 (8.0–27.0)7.0 (5.0–15.0) 0.017
 Peak VO2, mL/kg/min (n=50)22.0±7.519.5±6.024.0±8.0 0.032
 Peak VO2% (n=50)67.3±22.158.7±17.274.0±23.5 0.014
CMR
 Qp:Qs1.0±0.21.0±0.21.1±0.30.579
 Cardiac index (L/min/m2)3.3±1.32.9±0.93.6±1.5 0.021
 Functional RA volume index, mL/m2 147.5 (104.7–214.5)211.8 (173.7–246.3)123.1 (98.8–160.0) 0.001
 Native RA volume index, mL/m2 112.5 (83.6–172.6)160.3 (114.7–185.1)100.5 (81.1–133.3) <0.001
 Atrialised RV volume index, mL/m2 40.7 (25.8–69.3)63.0 (45.4–92.5)33.5 (25.1–53.1) 0.001
 Tricuspid regurgitant fraction, %33.7 (24–56)51.8 (30–61)26.3 (23–36) 0.004
 Apical septal leaflet displacement, mm46.6±15.453.0±17.342.9±12.8 0.004
 Apical septal leaflet displacement indexed, %53.5±18.660.0±19.949.4±16.8 0.013
 Functional RV end diastolic volume index, mL/m2 120.2 (92.5–162.7)152.9 (120.0–189.1)108.7 (86.0–126.7) <0.001
 Functional RV end systolic volume index, mL/m2 63.9 (46.2–87.5)86.9 (65.0–105.1)51.6 (41.1–66.3) <0.001
 Functional RV stroke volume index, mL/m2 57.4 (46.0–78.0)74.2 (55.6–85.3)50.2 (41.9–65.9) <0.001
 Functional RV ejection fraction, %46.5±7.145.0±5.747.4±7.80.144
 Functional RV/LV end diastolic indexed volume ratio1.58 (1.21–2.32)2.32 (1.72–2.90)1.34 (1.06–1.71) <0.001
 LV end diastolic volume index, mL/m2 81.8 (67.5–93.6)72.8 (65.2–83.7)85.7 (73.9–101.9) 0.004
 LV end systolic volume index, mL/m2 38.1 (31.3–45.5)35.4 (26.5–43.3)39.9 (31.8–48.4)0.117
 LV stroke volume index, mL/m2 41.2 (35.2–50.9)38.8 (32.9–46.9)44.5 (36.2–53.9) 0.014
 LV ejection fraction, %53.6±7.452.2±6.254.5±8.00.392
 Total R/L volume index2.7 (1.9–4.4)4.4 (2.9–6.0)2.1 (1.8–3.2) <0.001
 Severity index0.70 (0.46–0.92)0.89 (0.70–1.01)0.62 (0.42–0.83) 0.010
  • *Tricuspid valve replacement (bioprosthesis/mechanic n=20/1), tricuspid valve repair (n=11), RV/RA plication (n=20/16), Patent Foramen Ovale(PFO)/Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) closure (n=10/12), ASD enlargement (n=1), MACE/cryoablation (n=5/13). Selection for surgery was based on clinical symptoms including exercise intolerance.

  • †Mann-Whitney/t-test/χ2.

  • ‡Sinus rhythm in 73 and established AF in 6.

  • §Non-compacted to compacted myocardium (NC/C) ratio >2.3.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; AT, atrial tachycardia; AVRT, atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia; CMR, cardiovascular magnetic resonance; LV, left ventricular; MACE, major adverse cardiovascular event; NYHA, New York Heart Association; Qp:Qs, ratio of pulmonary to aortic flow; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricular; WPW, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

  • Statistically significant p values are displayed in bold format.